Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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FINRA exam Format | FINRA Course Contents | FINRA Course Outline | FINRA exam Syllabus | FINRA exam Objectives

Test Detail:
The FINRA Administered Qualification exam is a series of exams administered by the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority (FINRA) for individuals seeking registration or licensure in the financial industry. These exams assess the knowledge and competence of individuals in various areas of the financial industry. Here is a detailed description of the test, including the number of questions and time allocation, course outline, exam objectives, and exam syllabus.

Number of Questions and Time:
The number of questions and time allocation for the FINRA Administered Qualification exam can vary depending on the specific exam. Each exam within the FINRA qualification program has its own set of requirements. It is important to refer to the specific exam guidelines provided by FINRA for accurate information regarding the number of questions and time allocated for each exam.

Course Outline:
The course outline for the FINRA Administered Qualification exam will depend on the specific exam being taken. FINRA offers a range of exams covering different areas of the financial industry, such as securities licensing, investment banking, and regulatory compliance. Each exam has its own course outline, which outlines the syllabus and knowledge areas that candidates are expected to be familiar with.

Exam Objectives:
The exam objectives for the FINRA Administered Qualification exam are designed to assess candidates' knowledge and understanding of the relevant regulations, rules, and best practices in the financial industry. The specific objectives may vary depending on the exam being taken. Generally, the exam objectives aim to evaluate candidates' competence in areas such as:

1. Industry regulations and compliance
2. Ethical standards and professional conduct
3. Products and services offered in the financial industry
4. Investment strategies and analysis
5. Client relationship management and communication

Exam Syllabus:
The exam syllabus for the FINRA Administered Qualification exam will vary depending on the specific exam. The syllabus outlines the specific content areas, topics, and knowledge domains that candidates are expected to study and understand in preparation for the exam. The syllabus typically covers areas such as:

1. Regulatory framework and industry rules
2. Securities laws and regulations
3. Product knowledge (e.g., stocks, bonds, mutual funds)
4. Compliance and ethics
5. Risk management and suitability
6. Investment analysis and strategies
7. Client communication and relationship management

Candidates should consult the specific exam resources and study materials provided by FINRA to ensure they are adequately prepared for the exam. It is recommended to allocate sufficient time for exam preparation, including studying relevant regulatory materials, reviewing industry guidelines, and practicing with sample exam questions.

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Health and financial influencers now need to disclose qualifications under new ASCI guidelines

The Advertising Standards Council of India said influencers must disclose their qualifications and registration or certification details prominently. Image for representation purpose only. File

The Advertising Standards Council of India (ASCI) said medical practitioners, health and fitness, and finance experts holding certifications from recognised institutions are required to “disclose” that they are certified experts and practitioners while sharing information or promoting products or services or making any health-related claims.

All advertisements published by social media influencers “must carry a disclosure label that clearly identifies it as an advertisement”, the ASCI said as it issued fresh guidelines on August 17.

Also Read | Centre issues guidelines to social media influencers to regulate promotions

“Influencers providing advice and/or promoting and/or commenting on merits or demerits on aspects related to commercial goods and services, in the fields of Banking, financial services and insurance (BFSI) and Health & Nutrition, must have the necessary qualifications and certifications in order to provide such information and advice to consumers,” ASCI said in a press release.

Qualifications mandatory

Under the new guidelines, finance influencers also known as ‘finfluencers’, if advising about stock or investments, must have been registered with SEBI and their SEBI registration number should be stated with their name and qualifications. For other financial advice, the influencer must have suitable qualifications such as an IRDAI insurance license, CA, CS etc. “In addition, they must abide by all disclosure requirements as mandated by financial sector regulators from time to time,” the regulatory body said.

Meanwhile, for posts related to health and nutrition, the influencer must have relevant qualifications such as a medical degree, or be a certified nurse, nutritionist, dietician, physiotherapist, or psychologist depending on the specific advice being given.

The ASCI said influencers must disclose their qualifications and registration or certification details prominently and in the case of promotional content, advised them to review and satisfy themselves that the advertiser is in a position to substantiate the claims made in the advertisement.

Also Read | Lights, camera, branding: The world of Instagram influencers

These additional guidelines for celebrities, influencers, and virtual influencers in the field of health and wellness were earlier released by the nodal Consumer Affairs Ministry. The Department of Consumer Affairs will actively monitor and enforce these guidelines. Violations may lead to penalties under the Consumer Protection Act 2019 and other relevant provisions of the law.

Why these guidelines?

The guidelines, introduced initially in May 2021, aim to help consumers identify promotional content and make informed decisions on products or services. The guidelines have been amended in keeping with the rapidly evolving nature and extensive impact of digital platforms, ASCI said.

Inaccurate and deceptive advertising content in categories such as BFSI, and health and nutrition products and services, could significantly impact consumer well-being and financial security.

Stating that “a one size fits all approach can be dangerous”, Manisha Kapoor, CEO and Secretary General, ASCI, said: “As losses to consumers could be substantial and serious due to improper advice in the categories of health and finance, it is necessary that influencers in these two critical categories are qualified to provide advice and that these qualifications are stated upfront, whenever they put out such advertising posts.

Unlike celebrities whom consumers clearly know the fields they belong to, consumers may not necessarily know which influencers have the necessary qualification and expertise to provide the right advice and also inform them of any associated risks. To safeguard consumers from the consequences of advice from non-experts, these additional requirements should now be followed by health and financial influencers,” she said.

The guidelines have been released after discussions with the stakeholders including the Ministry of Health, the Ministry of Ayush, Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI), and Advertising Standards Council of India (ASCI).

(With PTI inputs)


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Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

Höhere Gewalt

Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

Technisches Versagen

Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

Kriminelle Ursachen


Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

Physischer Angriff

Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.


Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:


  • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
  • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
  • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
  • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

  • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
  • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
  • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
  • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
  • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
  • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
  • Rechtsverteidigungskosten


  • Betriebsunterbrechung
  • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
  • Mehrkosten
  • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
  • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
  • Cyber-Erpressung
  • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
  • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
  • Cyber-Betrug