Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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New Study: How Tonsillectomy Can Help Behavior Of Children Who Snore

Child eating ice pop right after tonsillectomy

getty

A study published in this month’s Journal of the American Medical Association, or JAMA, found that tonsil and adenoid surgery in children with sleep difficulties due to snoring may help them with daytime issues such as behavior challenges and overall quality-of-life. The study was a randomized clinical trial of over 400 children with large tonsils and adenoids causing snoring and breathing issues during sleep.

The investigators randomly assigned half of the children with these issues to have their tonsils and adenoids removed, and the other half to undergo ‘watchful waiting’ over a 12 month period. The study group, based out of multiple institutions in the U.S., evaluated several metrics of behavior and quality-of-life both before study enrollment and 12 months later. The study format was approved by institutional review boards at each of the investigation treatment sites.

The two groups of children, with an average age of six years, were assessed before study enrollment and 12 months later for improvement in behavior, focus, executive function and quality-of-life. Those who had their tonsils and adenoids removed were found to have improved quality-of-life, which was analyzed in parental questionnaire format based on standardized pediatric quality-of-life measuring tools, as well as improved behavior, also based on standardized measuring parameters, compared with those who did not undergo tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy surgery. However, the investigators found no difference between groups when measuring for changes in executive function and attention.

Child learning letters and words.

getty

As is well documented, children who have sleep issues due to snoring, known as sleep disordered breathing, can have problematic daytime behaviors including focus issues and learning challenges. Snoring and mild sleep apnea disrupt sleep cycles and depth of sleep in both children and adults, whereby what seems like a full night’s sleep may be functionally just half a night’s sleep if the sleep quality is poor. Some children who snore have issues of sleepiness, but it’s actually more common for sleep-deprived kids to be ‘tired and wired.’ Many of these children have been over-diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, or ADHD.

Dr. Ron Mitchell, Professor of Otolaryngology and Pediatrics at the University of Texas Southwestern, is a co-author and site principal investigator for the study. He notes that “parents should look for daytime symptoms of attention and concentration problems, sleepiness and poor school performance...over a 3 month [timeframe in a child] who is snoring at night.” If these issues are getting worse, he recommends that “they should be evaluated by their pediatrician and considered for an ear, nose and throat evaluation.”

Children undergoing testing

getty

The study authors have some explanations as to why there was no discernible difference in executive function and attention in this group of children who had their tonsils and adenoids removed. One possibility is that cognitive testing in certain environments such as a testing center may not reflect real-world situations that could be impacted by sleep quality. In addition, there could have been other factors in the children’s lives, such as other medical conditions or learning differences that may have impacted the degree of change in test results from before to after surgery.

And while study data and clinical trials enhance their knowledge of medical conditions and their treatments, results should not be wholly used to guide care in all individuals. As Dr. Mitchell states, “Clinical trials provide us with helpful data and can direct care. However, the decision to proceed with surgery is best done on a case by case basis.”

In latest years, there has been more awareness and understanding of how sleep quality, not just quantity, can impact a child’s ability to focus, learn and regulate behaviors. The results of this new study underscore the importance of identifying and addressing issues of sleep quality and how it may or may not impact a child’s daytime function on multiple levels.


Pets can help slow dementia progress among those over age 50 who live alone, study says

A new study suggests getting that cute dog in one's more mature years might be a good idea after all. 

Researchers from the Sun Yat-sen University in Guangzhou, China, found that pet ownership can be associated with slower rates of developing dementia. 

The study, published on Tuesday in JAMA Network Open, determined that owning a pet made a difference in verbal memory and fluency among adults who lived alone.

NEW STUDY SHOWS THE EFFECT OWNING PETS HAS ON OWNERS' BRAINS

The study's author, professor Ciyong Lu, said in the study that slower rates of declining verbal memory and fluency were seen in those who lived alone — but not in those who lived with others.

"Pet ownership offset the associations between living alone and declining rates [of] verbal memory and verbal fluency," he said. 

Researchers found that owning a pet helps those with dementia.  (iStock)

The research involved more than 7,900 participants over the age of 50, with roughly 35% of them owning pets and 27% of them living alone.

In the study, Lu said that those living alone with a pet showed slower rates of developing signs of dementia.

DOG OWNER GOOD NEWS: PETTING YOUR DOG MAY LEAD TO STRONGER MEMORY AND BETTER PROBLEM SOLVING SKILLS

"These findings suggest that pet ownership may be associated with slower cognitive decline among older adults living alone," he said.

"Contrary to living alone," the authors also wrote, "pet ownership (for example, raising dogs and cats) is related to reduced loneliness, an important risk factor for dementia and cognitive decline."

A new study found that owning a pet could be beneficial for people with signs of dementia who live alone.  (iStock)

Lu said that clinical trials will be necessary in order to confirm the study's findings.

Currently, more than 55 million people worldwide have dementia — with nearly 10 million new cases each year, according to the World Health Organization (WHO). 

EATING ONE POPULAR FRUIT COULD HELP REDUCE YOUR CHANCES OF DEVELOPING DEMENTIA, STUDY FINDS

Alzheimer's disease is the most common form of dementia, which is currently the 7th leading cause of death, the WHO also notes. 

Early symptoms of dementia include forgetfulness, being confused, losing track of time, misjudging distances, feeling anxious, experiencing personality changes, engaging in inappropriate behavior and more. (iStock)

Early symptoms of dementia include forgetfulness, being confused, losing track of time, misjudging distances, feeling anxious, personality changes, inappropriate behavior and more.

CLICK HERE TO GET THE FOX NEWS APP

There is currently no cure for dementia or for someone developing signs of dementia, but the WHO suggests that staying active and continuing to stimulate the brain may help.

CLICK HERE TO SIGN UP FOR THEIR LIFESTYLE NEWSLETTER

Fox News Digital reached out to Lu for further comment. 

For more Lifestyle articles, visit www.foxnews.com/lifestyle.

Brittany Kasko is a lifestyle production assistant with Fox News Digital. 


Study: Light Therapy May Help Ease Symtoms of Alzheimer’s Disease Like Sleep, Mood

Fact checked by Nick Blackmer

  • New research found that light therapy may be useful in reducing sleep issues and psychobehavioral symptoms associated with Alzheimer’s disease.

  • Experts note that people doing light therapy should aim for 2–3 sessions per week, with each session ranging from 10–30 minutes.

  • More research is needed for clinical certainty regarding light therapy and Alzheimer’s disease, though it could be a valuable, complementary approach to treating the condition in years to come.

  • Light therapy could be a useful tool to ease Alzheimer’s symptoms, a new study finds.

    Previous research has found that 90% of people living with Alzheimer’s experience psychobehavioral symptoms, and 70% of people living with Alzheimer’s experience sleep disorders.

    “These often disruptive symptoms are the primary reasons for placement in a care facility, and for increases in caregiver burden and distress,” Claire Sexton, DPhil, senior director of scientific programs and outreach at the Alzheimer’s Association, told Health.

    “Until they can stop or prevent the disease, it is essential that they effectively treat Alzheimer’s in those living with it, and Boost quality of life for the person and family,” she said.

    New research, a meta-analysis of 15 randomized controlled trials published earlier this month in PLOS One, found that photobiomodulation—a type of light therapy—can Boost the sleep and psychobehavioral symptoms in people with Alzheimer’s disease.

    The study was small, but a variety of therapy options were analyzed. Sexton explained that the size implies that the results can’t be translated into recommendations for individuals.

    Rather, the work emphasizes the need for further research, as well as shared and standardized protocols going forward.

    “It is very important that the Alzheimer’s/dementia research field addresses and effectively treats the challenging symptoms and behaviors common to people living with Alzheimer’s, in addition to treating the cognitive symptoms, changing the course of the disease, and eventually preventing Alzheimer’s and all other dementias,” she said.

    Here’s how light therapy may help those with Alzheimer’s disease.

    Light Therapy’s Range of Benefits May Directly Ease Alzheimer’s Symptoms

    There are a variety of light therapy options, but the new study focused specifically on photobiomodulation to see how it impacted people with Alzheimer’s.

    Photobiomodulation is the use of light (typically using red light) for modulating cell function, Dale Bredesen, MD, a neuroscience researcher, neurodegenerative disease expert, and author of The End of Alzheimer’s, told Health.

    “It has a wide range of effects, from reducing pain to increasing healing, reducing inflammation, improving sleep, and enhancing cognition,” he said.

    During light therapy, the light is absorbed by cells and provides energy support, he explained. This also increases blood flow.

    According to the study, light therapy can help people fall asleep faster, reduce nocturnal insomnia, increase total sleep time, and Boost sleep quality. It also can Boost cognitive function, enhance quality of life, and reduce caregiver burden in people with Alzheimer’s.

    Some of these physical benefits could be due to the effect that light therapy has on melatonin, Bredesen explained, which is directly tied to sleep. Meanwhile, improvements in behavior could be tied to the fact that light therapy reduces inflammation and improves blood flow, he said.

    “Light therapy...also influences serotonin and dopamine levels, contributing to improved mood and cognitive function,” Logan DuBose, MD, a geriatrics specialist and co-founder of Olera, a dementia care group, told Health.

    He explained that the combined impact on neurotransmitters makes light therapy a valuable intervention for enhancing sleep quality and psycho-social well-being.

    For light therapy to be useful, Bredesen explained that people usually need two to three sessions of therapy per week—ideally 10 to 30 minutes per session. Most often, light therapy is used in the evening, though if people are particularly struggling with waking up, they may prefer to do it in the morning, he said.

    “Light therapy can Boost sleep patterns, reduce night-time restlessness, and address mood-related symptoms and sundowning, fostering better overall psycho-social well-being,” said DuBose.

    He explained that, additionally, light therapy’s influence on circadian rhythms has been associated with cognitive benefits.

    Consequently, DuBose said that light therapy could potentially preserve cognitive function and slow cognitive decline in people with Alzheimer’s.

    This, ultimately, could enhance the overall quality of life for those affected by Alzheimer’s disease.

    But, More Light Therapy Research Is a Must

    While the results of the study are encouraging, more research is needed for any clinical certainty on how light therapy impacts Alzheimer’s.

    It is possible that this non-invasive treatment option could become an important tool for managing some symptoms associated with the disease, but it is too early to recommend it as a protocol for treatment.

    “The results [of this study] suggest that the combined evidence, though modest in scale, is encouraging but preliminary, and justifies further research in larger, more representative study populations,” Sexton said.

    She explained that if additional research indicates that light therapy can be used for Alzheimer’s, it would be a valuable non-pharmacological intervention that’s safe, non-invasive, and perhaps more cost-efficient than other options.

    While light therapy research is still in its infancy, it may be a complementary approach to Alzheimer’s alongside other treatments in the future.

    If you have any questions or concerns about light therapy or how it could impact your health circumstance, consult a trusted healthcare professional.

    Related: What Is Red Light Therapy?

    For more Health.com news, make sure to sign up for their newsletter!

    Read the original article on Health.com.


     


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    Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

    Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

    Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

    Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

    Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

    Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

    Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

    Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

    Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

    Höhere Gewalt

    Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

    Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

    Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

    Technisches Versagen

    Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

    Kriminelle Ursachen

    Hackerangriffe

    Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

    Physischer Angriff

    Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.

    Erpressung

    Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

    Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:

    Cyber-Kosten:

    • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
    • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
    • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
    • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

    Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

    • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
    • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
    • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
    • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
    • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
    • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
    • Rechtsverteidigungskosten

    Cyber-Eigenschäden:

    • Betriebsunterbrechung
    • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
    • Mehrkosten
    • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
    • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
    • Cyber-Erpressung
    • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
    • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
    • Cyber-Betrug