Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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Exam Number : FNS
Exam Name : Fitness Nutrition Specialist
Vendor Name : Medical
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FNS test Format | FNS Course Contents | FNS Course Outline | FNS test Syllabus | FNS test Objectives

Exam Details:
- Number of Questions: The number of questions in the Fitness Nutrition Specialist (FNS) test can vary depending on the certifying organization. Typically, the test consists of multiple-choice questions, and the exact number can range from 100 to 150 questions.

- Time: Candidates are typically given a set time limit to complete the FNS exam, which is generally around 2 to 3 hours. It is important to manage time effectively to ensure all questions are answered within the allocated time.

Course Outline:
The FNS certification program is designed to assess the knowledge and skills required to provide nutrition guidance and support to individuals in the fitness industry. While the specific course outline may vary depending on the certifying organization, the test generally covers the following key areas:

1. Basic Nutrition Concepts:
- Macronutrients (carbohydrates, proteins, fats)
- Micronutrients (vitamins, minerals)
- Energy balance and metabolism

2. Nutrition for Fitness and Exercise:
- Pre- and post-workout nutrition
- Hydration and electrolyte balance
- Sports nutrition and performance enhancement

3. Weight Management:
- Weight loss strategies and methods
- Body composition analysis
- Behavior change techniques for sustainable weight management

4. Special Populations:
- Nutrition considerations for different age groups (children, adolescents, older adults)
- Nutrition for pregnancy and lactation
- Nutrition for individuals with specific health conditions (diabetes, cardiovascular disease, etc.)

5. Supplementation and Ergogenic Aids:
- Common dietary supplements and their effects
- Ergogenic aids and performance-enhancing substances
- Evidence-based use and safety considerations

6. Counseling and Communication Skills:
- Interviewing and test techniques
- Effective communication strategies
- Behavior change theories and motivational techniques

Exam Objectives:
The objectives of the FNS test typically include:
- Assessing the candidate's understanding of basic nutrition principles and their application to fitness and exercise.
- Evaluating the candidate's knowledge of weight management strategies and their ability to provide guidance to individuals seeking weight loss or weight maintenance.
- Testing the candidate's knowledge of nutrition considerations for special populations, including different age groups and individuals with specific health conditions.
- Determining the candidate's familiarity with dietary supplements, ergogenic aids, and their appropriate use in the context of fitness and exercise.
- Assessing the candidate's counseling and communication skills to effectively work with clients and support behavior change.

Exam Syllabus:
The specific test syllabus for the FNS may vary depending on the certifying organization. However, the following courses are typically included:

1. Basic Nutrition Concepts:
- Macronutrients and their functions
- Micronutrients and their roles in the body
- Digestion, absorption, and metabolism of nutrients

2. Nutrition for Fitness and Exercise:
- Energy requirements for physical activity
- Pre- and post-workout nutrition strategies
- Nutrient timing and meal planning for optimal performance

3. Weight Management:
- Energy balance and weight regulation
- Strategies for healthy weight loss and maintenance
- Behavior change techniques for sustainable weight management

4. Special Populations:
- Nutrition considerations for different age groups (children, adolescents, older adults)
- Pregnancy and lactation nutrition
- Nutrition for individuals with specific health conditions (diabetes, cardiovascular disease, etc.)

5. Supplementation and Ergogenic Aids:
- Common dietary supplements and their effects
- Ergogenic aids and their impact on performance
- Evidence-based use, safety, and regulations

6. Counseling and Communication Skills:
- Client interviewing and test techniques
- Effective communication and motivational strategies
- Behavior change theories and techniques

It is important to note that the specific courses and depth of coverage may vary depending on the certifying organization offering the FNS certification. Candidates should refer to the official guidelines and study materials provided by the certifying organization for the most accurate and up-to-date information.

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Medical Specialist Free test PDF


Life Insurance Medical Exams: What You Need to Know

Buying life insurance is important to protect loved ones. But consumers purchasing a policy may need to undergo a life insurance medical exam. Here's what's involved in a life insurance exam, as well as some insight into why this is a common requirement.

What is a life insurance medical exam?

A life insurance medical test is a physical that is typically requested by a life insurance company. It's part of the process of buying life insurance in most situations. The purpose is to provide insurance companies with the information they need to set premiums. Life insurers usually pay for it, and there is both a verbal questionnaire and a physical exam.

Medical questionnaire

How do life insurance companies check an applicant's medical background? Generally, by asking questions as part of the life insurance application process. During the life insurance exam, consumers will be asked about their past health status. They'll be asked questions about their lifestyle and social habits, as well as their general health.

Physical exam

A life insurance physical is part of a life insurance application process. During the life insurance physical exam, the medical professional performing the process will check weight, collect a blood and urine sample, and check blood pressure.

Why do life insurance companies require an exam?

Life insurers require an test because insurance companies want to assess the likelihood of paying out claims. To do this, the insurance company wants to know as much as possible about an applicant's physical health.

The insurer wants to see if the potential policyholder has medical conditions that could make their death during the term of coverage more likely. The insurance company also wants to make sure an applicant isn't hiding any possible health issues.

Is an test required for life insurance?

A life insurance medical test is required by most life insurance providers -- but not all. A small number of life insurers offer term life insurance with a reasonable amount of coverage without requiring a medical exam. They've harnessed new technologies and algorithms to determine who to cover.

There are also some guaranteed issue life insurance policies that provide coverage without mandating a life insurance medical exam. However, coverage limits are often low with these policies. There may also be restrictions such as a lengthy waiting period before the full death benefit is paid.

What do life insurance companies test for in the medical exam?

When a potential policyholder undergoes a life insurance health exam, the purpose is to identify red flags that could make insuring a policyholder too risky. While there may be slight variations in what different insurers test for when a consumer undergoes a life insurance exam, here are some common things insurers look for.

High blood pressure

High blood pressure is a common life insurance test, as high blood pressure can increase the risk of heart attack, stroke, or other cardiac issues.

Blood sugar

As part of a life insurance blood test, insurers may look for elevated blood sugar that could be indicative of diabetes. Diabetes also comes with health risks that could result in a higher risk of an insurer paying out a death benefit.

Nicotine use

Smoking increases the risk of many medical problems, including various types of cancer. As a result, a life insurance medical test will involve an test of current and past nicotine use. Many carriers offer life insurance for smokers, though premiums are significantly higher.

High cholesterol

There's a higher risk of a stroke or heart disease when a person has high cholesterol. A life insurance test will test cholesterol levels.

Recreational drugs

The use of recreational drugs is a major risk factor that life insurers consider. An test will look for evidence of recreational drug use. However, some insurers are willing to accept marijuana users, especially as more states have relaxed the laws on cannabis.

Serious diseases

Finally, life insurers use blood tests to look for serious diseases. This can include conditions such as HIV or AIDS, as well as hepatitis. While some insurers provide coverage for people with HIV, others don't -- and a serious illness could make it impossible or expensive to get life insurance.

How to prepare for the medical exam

It's important to follow the life insurance company's instructions when preparing for a life insurance medical exam. These may include fasting prior to the test to avoid skewing blood sugar and cholesterol levels.

Drinking water prior to the test can help flush toxins from the body and dilate veins, making it easier for the technician to draw blood for the blood test. It's also a good idea to avoid strenuous exercise immediately before the test to avoid elevated blood pressure.

Also, consumers should review their medical history to ensure they can provide accurate, honest answers when asked about their health status. Failing to provide accurate information could result in an insurance company denying an application, canceling the policy, or refusing to pay death benefits.

What happens during the life insurance physical?

During the life insurance physical, a medical professional is typically dispatched to the applicant's home or office. The process will take around 45 minutes or less and will include a nurse or medical technician asking questions, as well as a physical examination. The life insurance test usually includes:

  • A height and weight check
  • A blood pressure check
  • The collection of blood and urine samples
  • Other ways life insurance companies get information about you

    In addition to a life insurance medical exam, insurers may also employ other techniques to find out information about a potential policyholder's health status. This could include checking your records with the MIB (formerly the Medical Information Bureau), which includes information from past life insurance and health insurance applications. Other potential sources of information include your prescription drug history, driving records, and a criminal background check.

    Do life insurance companies call your doctor?

    Life insurers generally do not directly ask questions of a person's doctor. Instead, the insurer will ask an applicant for medical information and will arrange for a life insurance medical test to be conducted by a medical professional of its choosing.

    In many cases though, with the permission of the policyholder, an insurer may request medical records from an applicant's doctor's office. It may request an attending physician statement (APS), which is a statement from your provider that gives context about any pre-existing conditions or your general health. However, doctors cannot just disclose patient information to a life insurer without the patient's permission, as doing so would violate federal laws protecting privacy.

    Do life insurance companies check medical records?

    Life insurance companies may request medical records during the underwriting process. They do this to determine if a policyholder was honest in their answers to medical questions and to look for red flags that could suggest an increased risk of providing coverage. They must obtain permission from the applicant first.

    Do life insurers check your credit?

    Life insurers may run a credit check. This is more common with life insurance companies that use algorithms and publicly available information to approve people for policies without a life insurance medical exam.

    What happens after the exam?

    In most cases, insurers will already be aware of any medical issues based on the information provided by the applicant. However, sometimes abnormalities will be uncovered and an insurer may request additional medical exams. For example, if a life insurance test shows high blood pressure, the insurer may request a follow-up test to see if it has remained elevated.

    Applicants can request a copy of their results after the exam. The information will be sent to the insurer's underwriting department, which will review the results of the life insurance medical exam. Based on this information, the insurer will set premiums. Applicants will then be notified of whether they are approved for coverage and what their premiums will be.

    What if I'm not happy with the results?

    If an applicant isn't happy with the results of a life insurance exam, there are a few options:

  • Buy coverage anyway, even if the premiums are higher, and request reconsideration after some time passes. This has the benefit of allowing the applicant to get immediate protection.
  • Shop for life insurance from another company. This may result in the same issues arising. But some insurers are more forgiving than others of various medical conditions.
  • Request a follow-up exam. Often, an applicant will have to pay for this if the insurer is satisfied that the results of the initial testing were accurate.
  • Work with a life insurance agent. Insurance professionals often know which carriers are likely to offer coverage to those with pre-existing conditions.
  • What if I'm denied coverage?

    If an applicant is denied coverage after a medical exam, they can:

  • Attempt to correct the issues resulting in the denial, such as by quitting smoking or getting high blood pressure under control with medication.
  • Shop with other insurers that may have less stringent qualifying requirements for similar coverage.
  • Obtain a guaranteed issue life insurance policy that doesn't require a medical exam.
  • How to get a life insurance medical exam

    To get a life insurance medical exam, apply for insurance coverage. The insurer will arrange for the test to occur at its own cost. The medical test will take place at the applicant's home or workplace.

    Options for life insurance without a medical exam

    There are several options for no medical test life insurance, some of which are better than others. Note that even if you have an underlying health condition, undergoing a medical test could still help you obtain more coverage at a lower cost.

    Simplified issue life insurance

    With simplified issue life insurance, you can typically avoid a medical exam. Instead, life insurance companies base decisions on third-party records and your answers to a health questionnaire. Sometimes this is a good option for people who need coverage to begin right away and can’t wait for a life insurance medical test and full underwriting.

    Guaranteed issue life insurance

    Guaranteed issue life insurance is life insurance that is available to everyone regardless of medical status. Many insurers offer these policies, although they often have relatively low coverage limits. Many guaranteed issue policies have waiting periods, such as a two-year delay until the full death benefit pays out.

    Group life insurance

    Group life insurance may be available as a workplace benefit. It's often possible to obtain a set amount of coverage through an employer's group life insurance plan without a life insurance medical exam.

    Final expense insurance

    Final expense insurance is a small life insurance policy designed to cover funeral costs. Most final expense insurance policies are guaranteed issue policies. That means no life insurance medical test is required. However, these policies provide limited protection. They only help families cover a small amount of costs after a death.

    RELATED: See The Ascent's guide to the best life insurance with no exam.

    'Makes a difference': Why MetroWest Free Medical Program's new Marlborough clinic matters

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  • One Senior Place: If you are thinking your memory is fading, see a specialist to find out

    No result found, try new keyword!Alzheimer’s disease is the most common form of dementia. Worldwide, 55 million people are living with Alzheimer's and other dementias.

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    Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

    Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

    Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

    Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

    Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

    Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

    Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

    Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

    Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

    Höhere Gewalt

    Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

    Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

    Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

    Technisches Versagen

    Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

    Kriminelle Ursachen


    Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

    Physischer Angriff

    Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.


    Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

    Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:


    • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
    • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
    • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
    • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

    Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

    • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
    • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
    • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
    • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
    • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
    • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
    • Rechtsverteidigungskosten


    • Betriebsunterbrechung
    • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
    • Mehrkosten
    • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
    • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
    • Cyber-Erpressung
    • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
    • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
    • Cyber-Betrug