Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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Exam Number : FPGEE
Exam Name : Foreign Pharmacy Graduate Equivalency
Vendor Name : Medical
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FPGEE exam Format | FPGEE Course Contents | FPGEE Course Outline | FPGEE exam Syllabus | FPGEE exam Objectives


The Foreign Pharmacy Graduate Equivalency Exam®, or FPGEE®, is one of the examinations required as part of the FPGEC Certification Program (You must also take and pass the TOEFL iBT, the English-language exam administered by Educational Testing Service. Applications submitted after January 1, 2020 must complete the TOEFL iBT requirement prior to sitting for the FPGEE).



The FPGEE is offered once per year, and it is administered at Pearson VUE test sites throughout the continental United States. Only individuals made eligible during the FPGEC application process can take the FPGEE.



You will be notified via your e-Profile that you are eligible to sit for the FPGEE after successfully completing the FPGEC evaluation process. You must pass the FPGEE within two years of having your FPGEC application accepted or your application will expire, and you will need to submit a new FPGEC application.



An overview of FPGEC Certification

FPGEC and ECE application procedures

Documentation of pharmacist credentials

Registering for the FPGEE

FPGEE administration

FPGEE score results



The FPGEE Competency Statements provide a blueprint of the syllabus covered on the examination. A strong understanding of the Competency Statements will aid in your preparation to take the examination. The 200 questions on the FPGEE are divided among four content areas:



Basic biomedical sciences – 10%

Pharmaceutical sciences – 33%

Social, behavioral, administrative pharmacy sciences – 22%

Clinical sciences – 35%

The statements can be found in the FPGEC Candidate Application Bulletin.



Foreign Pharmacy Graduate exam Committee™ (FPGEC®) Certification is required for
foreign-educated pharmacists seeking to apply for the pharmacy licensing exams (including the North
American Pharmacist Licensing Exam® (NAPLEX®) and Multistate Pharmacy Jurisprudence
Exam® (MPJE®)) in the United States and NABP member jurisdictions. To obtain FPGEC
Certification, a candidate must have their required documentation and application accepted, including
a passing score on the Test of English as a Foreign Language Internet-based Test (TOEFL iBT), and
pass the Foreign Pharmacy Graduate Equivalency Exam® (FPGEE®). The information below is
provided to guide you through the key steps in applying for FPGEC Certification, including instructions
for registering to take the FPGEE. It answers the most frequently asked questions about the FPGEC
application process. Please read this information carefully and refer to the appropriate sections of this
Application Bulletin for detailed information.



NABP provides the FPGEC Certification Program to document the educational equivalency of
a candidates foreign pharmacy education, as well as their license and/or registration to practice
pharmacy. To achieve FPGEC Certification, candidates must:

• Provide documents that verify their education background.

• Provide documents that verify licensure and/or registration to practice pharmacy.

• Pass the Test of English as a Foreign Language Internet-based Test (iBT).

• Pass the FPGEE.

Candidates who receive an FPGEC Certificate may be qualified to take the pharmacy licensing
examination in jurisdictions that accept this Certification. All 50 US states, the District of Columbia,
Guam, and Puerto Rico require foreign-trained pharmacists to achieve FPGEC Certification before
applying for a license from a state board of pharmacy



- Physiology

- Function of the major body systems and homeostatic impact at organ and system level

- Biochemistry

- Chemistry and utilization of biomacromolecules including proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, nucleic acid, intermediary metabolism of energy and nutritional molecules

- Enzymology and coenzymes and kinetics

- Cell chemistry, signal transduction pathways

- Transport and mobility

- Recombinant DNA and molecular biotechnology

- mRNA translation and protein synthesis

- Microbiology Related to Human Disease

- Structure, function, and characteristics of microorganisms: microbe classification, structure, metabolism, genetics

- Pathogenic microorganisms of humans

- Immunology

- Innate and adaptive immunity

- Principles of antibody actions

- Hypersensitivity and types of reactions



Area 2.0 - Pharmaceutical Sciences (Approximately 33% of Test)

- Medicinal Chemistry

- Physicochemical properties of drugs in relation to drug absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME)

- Chemical basis for drug action

- Fundamental pharmacophores for drugs used to treat diseases

- Structure-activity relationships in relation to drug-target interactions

- Chemical pathways of drug metabolism

- Applicability to making drug therapy decisions

- Pharmacology and Toxicology

- Mechanisms of action of drugs of various categories including biologics

- Pharmacodynamics of drug binding and response

- Adverse effects and side effects of drugs

- Mechanisms of drug-drug interactions

- Drug discovery and development

- Acute and chronic toxic effect of xenobiotics, including drug and chemical overdose and antidotes

- Pharmacognosy and Dietary Supplements

- Concepts of crude drugs, semi-purified, and purified natural products

- Classes of pharmacologically active natural products

- Science and regulation of dietary supplements (vitamins, minerals, and herbals)

- Pharmaceutics/Biopharmaceutics

- Biopharmaceutical principles of drug delivery to the body via dosage forms: liquid, solid, semisolid, controlled release, patches, implants

- Materials and methods used in preparation of drug forms

- Physicochemical properties relating to drug entities and dosage forms

- Principles of drug and dosage form stability, including chemical degradation and physical instability

- Pharmacokinetics

- Basic principles of in-vivo drug kinetics (linear and nonlinear)

- Principles of bioavailability and bioequivalence

- Physiologic determinates of drug onset and duration, including disease and dietary influences on absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion

- Pharmacogenomics and Genetics

- Molecular genetics, genomic, proteomic, and metabolomic principles that serve as a foundation for pharmacogenomics and the genetic basis of disease

- Genetic variants affecting drug action and metabolism, adverse drug reactions, and disease risk that influence the practice of personalized medicine

- Sterile and Nonsterile Compounding

- United States Pharmacopeia guidelines on sterile and nonsterile compounding, hazardous drugs, and FDA regulation of compounding

- Techniques and principles used to prepare and dispense individual extemporaneous prescriptions, including dating of compounded dosage forms

- Dosage form preparation calculations

- Sterile admixture techniques, including stability, clean-room requirements, sterility testing, and dating



Area 3.0 – Social/Behavioral/Administrative Sciences (Approximately 22% of Test)

- Health Care Delivery Systems and Public Health

- Organization of health care delivery systems at the national, state, and local levels: various settings where pharmacy is practiced and the structure of health care delivery systems such as managed care organizations, accountable care organizations, health departments

- Health care delivery financing in the United States

- Social, political, and economic factors that influence the delivery of health care in the United States

- Public Health and Wellness: chronic disease prevention, health promotion, infectious disease control, demographics, physical, social, and environmental factors leading to disease, comparing and contrasting public health with individual medical care

- The health care delivery system compared and contrasted with that of other industrialized nations

- Population-Based Care and Pharmacoepidemiology

- Data sources and analytic tools that provide an estimate of the probability of beneficial or adverse effects of medication use in large populations

- Application of epidemiological study designs to evaluate drug use and outcomes in large populations

- Methods for continually monitoring unwanted effects and other safety-related aspects of medication use in large populations

- Economic and Humanistic Outcomes of Health Care Delivery

- General microeconomic and general macroeconomic principles

- Pharmacoeconomic analysis and its application to Improve the allocation of limited health care resources

- Humanistic outcomes and their application to Improve the allocation of limited health care resources

- Pharmacy Practice Management

- Management principles (planning, organizing, directing, and controlling pharmacy resources) applied to various pharmacy practice setting and patient outcomes

- Personnel management

- Planning, including delineation between business and strategic planning

- Marketing of goods and services: product versus service pricing, distribution, promotion

- Accounting and financial management

- Budgeting

- Risk management

- Pharmacy Law and Regulatory Affairs

- Legal and regulatory principles applied to pharmacy practice: dispensing, professional services, drug use control

- Administrative, civil, and criminal liability

- Authority, responsibilities, and operation of agencies and entities that promulgate or administer laws, regulations, or guidances related to practice and prescription and nonprescription medications

- Biostatistics and Research Design

- Research study designs used in medical research

- Application and interpretation of statistical tests and data collection instruments

- Ethical Decision Making

- Principles of biomedical ethics

- Ethical dilemmas in the delivery of patient-centered care including, conflicts of interest, end-of-life decision making, use of codes of ethics, oaths of the pharmacist

- Research ethics

- Professional Communication

- Communication abilities (appropriate verbal, nonverbal, visual, and written) with patient and caregivers, including empathetic communication

- Communication abilities with other health care providers

- Assertiveness and problem-solving techniques in relation to difficult social and professional conflicts and situations

- Measurement and use of health literacy in pharmacy communications

- Development of cultural competency in pharmacy personnel such that services are respectful of and responsive to the health beliefs, practices, and cultural and linguistic needs of diverse patient populations

- Social and Behavioral Aspects of Pharmacy Practice

- Health-, illness-, and sick-role behaviors of patients

- Principles of behavior modification

- Patient adherence to therapies and recommendations

- Caregiving throughout the lifecycle

- Death and dying

- Medication Dispensing and Distribution Systems

- Systems for safe and effective preparation and dispensing of medications in all types of practice settings

- Role of automation and technology: pharmacy informatics, information management

- Continuous quality improvement programs or protocols in the medication-use process, including identification and prevention of medication errors, and establishment of error reduction programs



Area 4.0 – Clinical Sciences (Approximately 35% of Test)

- Evidence-based Practice

- Interpret and evaluate drug information

- Apply drug-information skills for the delivery of medication therapy management

- Evaluate the reliability of various sources of information

- Interpret guidelines as they apply in a clinical setting

- Utilize core scientific and systems-based knowledge in the patient care decision-making process

- Utilize basic science principles in the development and/or implementation of drug treatment protocols and clinical practice guidelines

- Evaluate clinical trials that validate clinical appropriateness

- Clinical Pathophysiology

- Apply concepts of pathophysiology to clinical decision making

- Clinical Pharmacokinetics

- Utilize pharmacokinetics to calculate, evaluate, and individualize drug therapy

- Interpret clinical pharmacokinetics of commonly used and low-therapeutic-index drug
s
- Clinical Pharmacogenomics

- Utilize pharmacogenomics to calculate, evaluate, and individualize drug therapy

- Disease Prevention and Population Health

- Recognize the proper use of nonpharmacologic therapies, including complementary and alternative medicines

- Describe measures to promote wellness and disease prevention

- Identify the role of immunizations in disease prevention and health promotion

- Patient Assessment

- Describe techniques for obtaining a comprehensive patient history

- Describe how to perform patient physical exams: inspection, palpation, percussion, auscultation

- Differentiate between normal physical exam findings and modifications caused by common disease states and drug therapy

- Interpret common clinical laboratory values and diagnostic tests

- Perform calculations related to patient exam: BMI, CrCl, lab adjustments

- Describe the use of OTC point-of-care testing devices: glucometers, pregnancy tests, home testing for HbA1c, drug screening

- Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutic Decision Making

- Make therapy recommendations based on dosage calculations, specific uses and indications of drugs and nutritional and support therapy

- Interpret therapeutic drug concentrations

- Assess pharmacotherapy considering contraindications, therapeutic duplications, dietary interactions, adverse drug reactions and interactions, and allergies

- Triage and identify when to refer patients to other health professionals

- Design patient-centered, culturally-relevant treatment plans

- Apply evidence-based decision making to patient care

- Recommend nonprescription and natural product therapies

- Identify and manage drug toxicity, drug-induced diseases, and misuse or abuse

- Monitor drug therapy for misuse, abuse, and non-adherence



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Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

Höhere Gewalt

Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

Technisches Versagen

Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

Kriminelle Ursachen

Hackerangriffe

Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

Physischer Angriff

Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.

Erpressung

Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:

Cyber-Kosten:

  • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
  • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
  • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
  • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

  • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
  • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
  • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
  • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
  • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
  • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
  • Rechtsverteidigungskosten

Cyber-Eigenschäden:

  • Betriebsunterbrechung
  • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
  • Mehrkosten
  • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
  • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
  • Cyber-Erpressung
  • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
  • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
  • Cyber-Betrug