Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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Certification-Board FSOT : Foreign Service Officer Test exam Dumps

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Exam Number : FSOT
Exam Name : Foreign Service Officer Test
Vendor Name : Certification-Board
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FSOT exam Format | FSOT Course Contents | FSOT Course Outline | FSOT exam Syllabus | FSOT exam Objectives


The Foreign Service Act of 1980 tasks the U.S.
Department of State – and the Board of Examiners
(BEX) specifically – with responsibility for the
evaluation and selection of candidates for the
Foreign Service.

The Department takes this charge seriously and has
devoted significant resources to the development of
a Foreign Service Officer Selection Process with
the goal of providing all candidates, regardless of
socioeconomic background, education, or
experience, a chance to demonstrate their potential
to be a Foreign Service Officer.

Candidates who participate in the selection process
will find that it is designed to challenge them and to
give them the opportunity to demonstrate qualities
that have been identified as necessary to become a
successful Foreign Service Officer. Thus, the
Board of Examiners stands by the validity and
integrity of the exam process as being a fair
and accurate selection method for Foreign Service
Officers. Indeed, it is vital to the U.S. Department
of States mission and purpose.

To ensure no bias in favor of any candidate, the
Board of Examiners periodically revises its testing
materials. It also asks all candidates to sign nondisclosure agreements before beginning portions of
the exam, and has implemented other
safeguards. Please note that BEX will terminate the
candidacy of anyone found to have violated the nondisclosure agreement.
The Foreign Service is a unique career and, perhaps
unsurprisingly, the selection process is also unique.
The Foreign Service selection process, including
the Foreign Service Officer Test (FSOT), the
Qualifications Evaluation Panel (QEP), and the
Foreign Service Oral Assessment (FSOA), is an
employment selection tool used by the Department
of State to identify the most qualified candidates for
Foreign Service positions.



In other words, it is a hiring process. Therefore, the
nature and purpose of this exam process are
different from those of educational testing.
In education, exam focuses on “mastery
testing” and the goal is to determine if the student
possesses sufficient knowledge or skill to pass a
course or to practice a profession. The exams
are usually comprehensive, covering the entire body
of required knowledge or skill. The scores verify
current competence and command of a definite skill
set. Such exams are often accompanied by
extensive feedback, and possibly remedial training
and reassessment, with the ultimate objective of
passing. Education exams are not a
competition; the objective is for everyone to pass.
In employment selection, the goal is to determine
which candidates are the most qualified because an
organization wants to hire the best. Employment
assessments only trial a job-related body of
knowledge or skills because exam time is
limited. The scores are used as predictors of
prospective job performance, rather than indicators
of current competence. Thus, tests like those used in
the Foreign Service Officer selection process are not
accompanied by extensive feedback or remedial
training because they are not meant to measure an
entire body of knowledge or skills. Moreover, the
organizations hiring process is meant to be highly
selective given the limited number of openings
available.



The Foreign Service Officer Test (FSOT) is the first
of eight steps in the FSO selection process. It is a
computer-based test that consists of four separate
test sections:

1. Job Knowledge Test

2. Situational Judgment Test

3. English Expression Test

4. Written Essay Test

The first three sections of the test contain items in a
multiple-choice format. The Written Essay appears
in the last section of the FSOT. Each section of the
test is timed separately and must be completed
within the designated time limit.

This Guide provides trial questions for each
component of the FSOT to provide candidates a
general idea of the type of questions they will
encounter in the test.

Although the Written Essay section is an important
aspect of the test that is used to determine a
candidates qualifications, it will not be scored
unless the candidate passes the Job Knowledge,
Situational Judgment Test, and English Expression
sections of the test.



Success on the FSOT involves much more than
studying for a test. The FSOT assesses knowledge
and skills that the candidate has acquired from
reading widely from many different sources, study
or course work in a number of related fields, and
other career or life experiences.

In the development of the FSOT, a job analysis
was conducted of the positions held by Foreign
Service Officers to identify the knowledge and
skills critical to success on the job. Then, a
detailed test blueprint was created.

The test blueprint provides an outline of the
required knowledge and skill areas and their
relative importance to the job. The knowledge
and skill areas covered on the FSOT are listed
below.

 Correct grammar, organization, writing
strategy, sentence structure, and
punctuation required for writing or
editing reports: This knowledge area
encompasses English expression and
language usage skills required for preparing
or editing written reports, including correct
grammar and good writing at the sentence
and paragraph level.

 United States Government: This knowledge
area encompasses a general understanding of
the composition and functioning of the federal
government, the Constitution and its history,
the structure of Congress and its role in foreign
affairs, as well as the United States political
system and its role in governmental structure,
formulation of government policies, and
foreign affairs.

 United States History, Society, Customs,
and Culture: This knowledge area
encompasses an understanding of major
events, institutions, and movements in
national history, including political and
economic history, as well as national
customs and culture, social issues and
trends, and the influence of U.S. society and
culture on foreign policy and foreign affairs.



World History and Geography: This knowledge
area encompasses a general understanding of
significant world historical events, issues, and
developments, including their impact on U.S.
foreign policy, as well as knowledge of world
geography and its relationship to U.S. foreign policy.
 Economics: This knowledge area encompasses an
understanding of basic economic principles, as well
as a general understanding of economic issues and
the economic system of the United States.

 Mathematics and Statistics: This knowledge area
encompasses a general understanding of basic
mathematical and statistical procedures. Items
requiring calculations may be included.

 Management Principles, Psychology, and Human
Behavior: This knowledge area encompasses a
general understanding of basic management and
supervisory techniques and methods. It includes
knowledge of human psychology and behavior,
leadership, motivational strategies, and equal
employment practices.

 Communications: This knowledge area
encompasses a general understanding of the
principles of effective communication and publicspeaking techniques, as well as general knowledge
of public media, media relations, and the goals and
techniques of public diplomacy and their use to
support work functions.

 Computers and the Internet: This knowledge area
encompasses a general understanding of basic
computer operations such as word processing,
databases, spreadsheets, and using e-mail and the
Internet.


Related Areas of Study

Success on the FSOT is not necessarily dependent
on a specific course of study. However, the
curriculum of the following college-level courses
often helps to familiarize a candidate with the
information assessed by the test. The names of the
courses are general and may differ from institution
to institution.

• English Composition/Rhetoric

• American History

• American Studies (including cultural and social history)

• American Political Thought

• United States Political System

• American Economic History

• Introduction to Economics (micro and macro)

• World History (Western and non-Western)

• World Geography

• International Economics

• World Religions

• Introduction to Statistics

• Introduction to Management Principles

• Intercultural Communication

• Mass Communication

• Psychology



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Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

Höhere Gewalt

Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

Technisches Versagen

Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

Kriminelle Ursachen

Hackerangriffe

Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

Physischer Angriff

Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.

Erpressung

Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:

Cyber-Kosten:

  • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
  • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
  • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
  • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

  • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
  • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
  • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
  • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
  • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
  • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
  • Rechtsverteidigungskosten

Cyber-Eigenschäden:

  • Betriebsunterbrechung
  • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
  • Mehrkosten
  • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
  • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
  • Cyber-Erpressung
  • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
  • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
  • Cyber-Betrug