Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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GPTS test Format | GPTS Course Contents | GPTS Course Outline | GPTS test Syllabus | GPTS test Objectives


Exam Details:
- Number of Questions: The number of questions in the NASM Group Training Specialist (GPTS) test is typically around 100 to 120 multiple-choice questions. However, the exact number may vary depending on the certifying organization or program.

- Time: Candidates are usually given a set time limit to complete the GPTS exam, which is typically around 2 hours. It is important to manage time effectively to ensure all questions are answered within the allocated time.

Course Outline:
The GPTS certification program is designed to assess the knowledge and skills required to effectively lead and instruct group training sessions. While the specific course outline may vary depending on the certifying organization (e.g., NASM - National Academy of Sports Medicine), the test generally covers the following key areas:

1. Group Training Fundamentals:
- Principles of group training
- Role of a group training specialist
- Safety considerations in a group training setting

2. Program Design and Planning:
- Assessing client needs and goals
- Designing effective group training programs
- Progression and regression strategies for different fitness levels

3. Practice Technique and Instruction:
- Proper form and technique for various exercises
- Cueing and demonstration techniques
- Modifying exercises for different individuals and groups

4. Class Management and Engagement:
- Creating a positive and motivating environment
- Effective communication and leadership skills
- Managing group dynamics and individual needs

5. Safety and Injury Prevention:
- Warm-up and cool-down protocols
- Proper spotting and equipment usage
- Identifying and addressing potential injury risks

6. Special Populations and Modifications:
- Training considerations for different populations (e.g., seniors, pregnant women)
- Modifications for individuals with injuries or limitations
- Inclusive and adaptable programming for diverse groups

7. Business and Professional Development:
- Marketing and promoting group training services
- Client acquisition and retention strategies
- Professional ethics and standards

Exam Objectives:
The objectives of the GPTS test typically include:
- Assessing the candidate's understanding of group training fundamentals, including safety, program design, and class management.
- Evaluating the candidate's knowledge of proper exercise technique and instruction for a variety of exercises commonly used in group training.
- Testing the candidate's ability to create engaging and effective group training sessions for different fitness levels and goals.
- Assessing the candidate's understanding of safety protocols and injury prevention strategies in a group training setting.
- Evaluating the candidate's knowledge of modifications and considerations for special populations participating in group training.
- Testing the candidate's understanding of business and professional development practices relevant to group training specialists.

Exam Syllabus:
The specific test syllabus for the GPTS may vary depending on the certifying organization. However, the following syllabus are typically included:

1. Group Training Fundamentals:
- Principles of group training
- Instructor roles and responsibilities
- Group dynamics and motivation

2. Program Design and Planning:
- Assessing client needs and goals
- Designing effective group training programs
- Progression and regression strategies

3. Practice Technique and Instruction:
- Proper form and technique for exercises
- Cueing and demonstration techniques
- Practice modifications and variations

4. Class Management and Engagement:
- Creating a positive and motivating environment
- Communication and leadership skills
- Managing group dynamics and individual needs

5. Safety and Injury Prevention:
- Warm-up and cool-down protocols
- Spotting and equipment usage
- Identifying and addressing injury risks

6. Special Populations and Modifications:
- Considerations for different populations (e.g., seniors, pregnant women)
- Modifications for injuries or limitations
- Inclusive and adaptable programming

7. Business and Professional Development:
- Marketing and promoting group training services
- Client acquisition and retention strategies
- Professional ethics and standards

It is important to note that the specific syllabus and depth of coverage may vary depending on the certifying organization offering the GPTS certification. Candidates should refer to the official guidelines and study materials provided by the certifying organization for the most accurate and up-to-date information.



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A Trainer’s Review of the ISSA Strength and Conditioning Certification

No result found, try new keyword!There is an open-book or proctored exam, either of which can be taken ... but the option for online coaching clients who prefer remote training is available. Coaches have the opportunity to support a ...

Three Trainers, Murphy Join HISA Advisory Group

Thoroughbred trainers Dale Romans, John Sadler, Shug McGaughey, and racing and bloodstock manager Gavin Murphy have joined the Horseracing Integrity and Safety Authority's Horsemen's Advisory Group. The group is a body of racing industry participants formed by HISA last year to provide formal feedback to HISA's executive team and standing committees on the implementation and evolution of its Racetrack Safety and Anti-Doping and Medication Control Program regulations. They will replace outgoing Horsemen's Advisory Group members Rick Gold, Rick Schosberg, Donnie Von Hemel, and the late Frank Jones.

Dale Romans is an Eclipse Award-winning trainer from Louisville, Ky., operating Romans Racing. Romans races in Kentucky, New York, and Florida. He is a member of the board of directors, as well as the vice president, of the Kentucky Horsemen's Benevolent and Protective Association. Romans also serves as a member of the Churchill Downs Racing Committee and the Gulfstream Park Racing Committee.

Dale Romans waiting to go live on Radio Hofstra University on apron at track. <br> Mornings at Belmont Park June 6, 2019 in Elmont,  NY. Photo: Anne M. Eberhardt

Dale Romans

John Sadler is a California-based trainer and former show jumper who has been training since 1978. In addition to training multiple Eclipse champions, Sadler was previously president of the California Thoroughbred Trainers and a member of the boards of the Edwin Gregson Foundation and the Thoroughbred Owners of California.

John Sadler at Keeneland in Lexington, Ky., on Oct. 23, 2022 Photo: Anne M. Eberhardt

John Sadler

Shug McGaughey is a New York-based Hall of Fame trainer and a native of Lexington. Historically the private trainer for the laureled Phipps Stable, McGaughey brings more than 30 years of experience as a top horseman to the Horsemen's Advisory Group. Five of McGaughey's trainees have been inducted into the Hall of Fame.

Shug McGaughey<br> Horses training at Pimlico Racecourse in Baltimore, Md., on May 18, 2023. Photo: Anne M. Eberhardt

Shug McGaughey

Gavin Murphy is an industry member originally from Queensland, Australia. Murphy is the head of SF Bloodstock, an internationally recognized bloodstock investment fund with breeding and racing operations in the United States, Australia, and Europe. A longtime industry stakeholder, Gavin was previously employed at Soros Fund Management, has served on the board of directors at Breeders' Cup and has a significant involvement with top Australian stud farm Newgate.

The full list of the Horsemen's Advisory Group members can be found here.

The group has 19 members with a wide variety of viewpoints from across racing. Its membership includes trainers, owners, veterinarians, backstretch employees, representatives of racing offices, and aftercare initiatives.

"I am grateful to Rick Gold, Rick Schosberg, Donnie Von Hemel, and the late Frank Jones for their dedication to improving HISA's Racetrack Safety and ADMC programs," HISA CEO Lisa Lazarus said. "Their feedback has been integral to HISA's evolution as they work to create a fair and safe playing field for the sport. They look forward to collaborating with the new horsemen joining their group and benefitting from their years of hands-on experience in the Thoroughbred industry."

This press release has been edited for content and style by BloodHorse Staff.

Florida lawmakers consider mandating mass casualty training for teacher certifications

No result found, try new keyword!A bill filed in the Florida legislature will make that training a requirement to get a teaching certificate. The proposal expands a program Indian River State College in South Florida has in place as ...
 


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Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

Höhere Gewalt

Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

Technisches Versagen

Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

Kriminelle Ursachen

Hackerangriffe

Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

Physischer Angriff

Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.

Erpressung

Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:

Cyber-Kosten:

  • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
  • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
  • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
  • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

  • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
  • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
  • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
  • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
  • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
  • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
  • Rechtsverteidigungskosten

Cyber-Eigenschäden:

  • Betriebsunterbrechung
  • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
  • Mehrkosten
  • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
  • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
  • Cyber-Erpressung
  • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
  • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
  • Cyber-Betrug