Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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Exam Number : H12-111_V2.5-ENU
Exam Name : HCIA-IoT V2.5
Vendor Name : HUAWEI
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H12-111_V2.5-ENU test Format | H12-111_V2.5-ENU Course Contents | H12-111_V2.5-ENU Course Outline | H12-111_V2.5-ENU test Syllabus | H12-111_V2.5-ENU test Objectives

Exam Detail:
The HCIA-IoT (Huawei Certified ICT Associate - Internet of Things) exam, with code H12-111_V2.5-ENU, is designed to validate the knowledge and skills of individuals in the field of Internet of Things (IoT) technologies. The test covers various aspects of IoT, including device connectivity, data collection and processing, IoT applications, and security. Here are the test details for the HCIA-IoT V2.5 certification:

- Number of Questions: The test typically consists of multiple-choice questions. The exact number of questions may vary, but typically, the test includes around 60 to 70 questions.

- Time Limit: The time allocated to complete the test is 90 minutes.

Course Outline:
The HCIA-IoT V2.5 certification course covers the following topics:

1. IoT Overview:
- Understanding the concepts, principles, and applications of IoT.
- Familiarizing with the IoT architecture and ecosystem.
- Exploring the benefits and challenges of IoT implementation.

2. IoT Device Connection and Communication:
- Understanding different IoT communication protocols and standards.
- Configuring IoT devices for connectivity, including wireless and wired connections.
- Implementing data exchange and communication between IoT devices.

3. IoT Data Collection and Processing:
- Designing and deploying data collection systems for IoT devices.
- Implementing data processing and analytics techniques for IoT data.
- Understanding edge computing and cloud computing in the context of IoT.

4. IoT Applications and Services:
- Exploring various IoT applications in different industries, such as smart cities, healthcare, agriculture, etc.
- Understanding IoT platform architecture and development.
- Implementing IoT services and applications using Huawei IoT platforms.

5. IoT Security and Privacy:
- Understanding the security challenges in IoT deployments.
- Implementing security measures for IoT devices, networks, and applications.
- Addressing privacy concerns and complying with regulations in IoT deployments.

Exam Objectives:
The objectives of the HCIA-IoT V2.5 (H12-111_V2.5-ENU) test are as follows:

- Assessing candidates' understanding of IoT concepts, architectures, and applications.
- Evaluating candidates' ability to configure and manage IoT devices and connectivity.
- Testing candidates' proficiency in designing and implementing IoT data collection and processing systems.
- Evaluating candidates' knowledge of IoT applications and services, including IoT platform development.
- Assessing candidates' understanding of IoT security challenges and ability to implement security measures.

Exam Syllabus:
The specific test syllabus for the HCIA-IoT V2.5 (H12-111_V2.5-ENU) certification covers the following topics:

1. IoT Overview
2. IoT Device Connection and Communication
3. IoT Data Collection and Processing
4. IoT Applications and Services
5. IoT Security and Privacy

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HUAWEI V2.5 syllabus


Can 5G Save the Planet?

The 5G future promises more. More speed. More security. More support for cutting-edge applications such as robotic telemedicine and driverless cars.

Yet to achieve its full potential while protecting the environment, the next generation of wireless networking will need to deliver less in one key area.

Energy consumption.

From sleek mobile phones to ubiquitous cellular antennas to sprawling data centers, their increasingly connected digital lives require increasing amounts of electricity. The result? Increasing contributions to the carbon emissions that scientists believe are the driving force behind climate change and planetary warming.

The numbers tell the story. Canadian researchers estimate that by next year, information and communications technology (ICT) will account for 3.5 percent of annual global carbon emissions, a larger share than the aviation and shipping industries will account for.

That figure could jump to 14 percent of worldwide emissions by 2040, roughly equivalent to the percentage now attributable to the entire population of the United States.

Inside and outside the telecommunications industry, there’s concern that the pending 5G shift could play a significant role in any rise. By 2022, networks are expected to support 26 billion devices and connections worldwide, an increase of about 10 billion from 2015.

A 5G world includes many more wireless devices, including security cameras, smart appliances, and connected factory robots. More devices transmitting much more data figures to require far more power. Telecom sustainability expert Anders Andrae calls this situation a potential “perfect storm” of increased energy consumption.

“This is a real concern for 5G,” says Zach Chang, a carrier network product manager at the communications technology company Huawei. “It will be much more powerful than 4G in terms of processing power and bandwidth and has the potential to cover the whole Earth’s population.

“All of that will increase energy consumption. If the efficiency of the entire infrastructure doesn’t go up, it won’t make financial or environmental sense. It won’t be sustainable.”

Only that doesn’t have to be the case. International standards for 5G call for reduced energy use compared to today’s 4G networks, and companies such as Huawei are designing and building components with dramatically increased efficiency in mind.

The ultimate goal? Use less power to transmit more data, decreasing the wattage required for each bit of internet traffic.

So far, results have been promising. While recently discussing sustainability, Huawei Chairman Liang Hua said that with 4G, a single kilowatt hour (kWh) of electricity is sufficient to obtain about 300 high-definition movies. With 5G, that same kilowatt hour can power about 5,000 ultra-high definition movie downloads.

Or consider base stations, which transmit and receive the radio signals at the heart of wireless networks. These power-hungry sites can account for as much as 80 percent of total network energy use. Nearly half of the electricity consumed by each station goes to the air-conditioning used to cool transmission equipment.

In the city of Hangzhou, Huawei and a major Chinese telecom provider have deployed new 5G base stations that require fewer heat-generating electronic components. They also use sophisticated power management software and trade air-conditioning for open-air cooling.

Compared to 4G stations, the new stations use almost 20 percent less electricity. That saves an estimated 4,130 kWh of power per site per year, which translates to about 1,125 kilograms (kg) of carbon emissions.

If the efficiency of the entire infrastructure doesn’t go up, it won’t make financial or environmental sense. It won’t be sustainable.

Similarly, other companies in Europe and Japan have developed base stations that use liquid cooling and solar power. Respectively, those solutions reduce energy operating expenses by nearly a third and CO2 emissions by up to 80 percent.

What could these reductions mean at scale? Between now and 2022, Huawei estimates, more than 2 million base stations in China alone will be built or reconstructed for 5G.

Apply that number to the energy-use reductions achieved in Hangzhou, and that’s 8.3 billion kWh of electricity and 2.3 billion kg of carbon emissions saved per year. The first number is almost the same as total annual household power consumption in Iceland. The second is equivalent to the yearly CO2 absorption of 130 million trees.

“When you’re talking about hundreds of thousands of base stations, even a 1 percent savings in power use is huge,” says Scott Jamar, Huawei’s vice president of Industry Relations.

Better base station efficiency isn’t the only way to reduce 5G power use. Huawei and others are developing additional solutions, including:

Ultimately, 5G’s most important contribution to energy efficiency may come through enabling users. Environmentalists and policy think tanks alike believe that smart, wirelessly-connected appliances, factories, cities, and transportation grids will be able to optimize and reduce their power consumption, just like networks and data centers. The end result? Lower costs and a meaningful contribution to global efforts to mitigate climate change.

“The thing about 5G is that they will have much more capacity to incorporate sensors into daily life, from industry to their own homes,” Chang says. “And that will allow us to modulate their energy use in so many places we’ve overlooked, just because they didn’t have the communications tools to make equipment truly smart. With 5G, their society as a whole can become much more energy efficient.”

Huawei Freebuds 5 unveiled, with killer specs and a unique design

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If you're in the market for a pair of the best wireless earbuds, you may find yourself overwhelmed with options. There are a whole heap of really great headphones on the market right now, and at increasingly competitive prices.

Sure, they all know about the Sony XF-X1000XM4, complete with a circa £200 RRP, but you don't have to break the bank for great option anymore. I recently used the Nothing Ear (2) and was blown away with the sound quality, design and feature set – particularly when they retail at just £129.

Now, Huawei are looking to get in the mix, with their newly unveiled Huawei Freebuds 5. The latest earbuds from the brand take on a new appearance, and put right some of their biggest spec sheet gripes from the Huawei Freebuds 4. The Freebuds 5 are set to retail at £159, and come in three colour variants – Ceramic White, Silver Frost and Coral Orange.

So, what's new? First things first, there's a 30-hour battery life listed. That's a giant leap up from the previous generation, and puts these earbuds right in the mix. Low-end frequency response is also given a boost, with Huawei claiming that these can handle frequencies as low as 16Hz. 

If true, that is seriously impressive. This half-in ear style of headphone is notorious for losing bass frequencies – without a firm seal within your ear canal, they just can't keep it in. For that reason alone, I'm slightly dubious of Huawei's claim, though I would be very happy to be proven wrong.

Elsewhere, adaptive EQ optimises the audio based on a variety of measurements, such as ear canal shape, wearing status and volume level. That all happens in real-time, too, ensuring optimal sound quality.

Of course, the biggest change is in the design of the buds themselves. It's... different, and certainly unique, though I can see it being a bit of a love-it-or-hate-it choice. I also can't shake the resemblance to a kidney bean from my mind.

Eccentric design aside, though, these sound like a remarkably good pair of earbuds. I'm desparate to try a pair – mostly to put those claims about the low-end to the test.

Today's best Huawei Freebuds 4 deals


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Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

Höhere Gewalt

Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

Technisches Versagen

Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

Kriminelle Ursachen


Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

Physischer Angriff

Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.


Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:


  • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
  • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
  • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
  • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

  • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
  • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
  • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
  • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
  • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
  • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
  • Rechtsverteidigungskosten


  • Betriebsunterbrechung
  • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
  • Mehrkosten
  • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
  • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
  • Cyber-Erpressung
  • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
  • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
  • Cyber-Betrug