Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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Exam Number : H12-221
Exam Name : Huawei Certified Network Professional-Implementing Enterprise Routing Network
Vendor Name : Huawei
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HCDP-IERN (Huawei Certified Datacom Professional — Implementing Enterprise Routing Network) Training
Such training aims to provide guidance to participants in learning contents related to the HCDP-IERN test (HC-221 HCDP-IERN). The training covers IPv4 address planning, OSPF, IS-IS, and BGP routing protocols, routing and routing control, multicast routing protocols, knowledge and networking application of Huawei routers.

l HCDP-IESN (Huawei Certified Datacom Professional — Implementing Enterprise Switching Network) Training Such training aims to provide guidance to participants in learning contents related to the HCDP-IESN test (HC-222 HCDP-IESN). The training covers basic principles and configuration of Ethernet, VLAN, STP/RSTP/MSTP, 802.1X, DHCP, MPLS LDP, and MPLS VPN technologies, their application in an enterprise network, knowledge and networking application of Huawei Ethernet switches.

l HCDP-IENP (Huawei Certified Datacom Professional — Improving Enterprise Network Performance) Training Such training aims to provide guidance to participants in learning contents related to the HCDP-IENP test (HC-223 HCDP-IENP). The training covers the knowledge of network security, advanced network technologies such as HA and IP QoS, and knowledge and networking application of Huawei security products.

l HCDP-Fast Composite Certification (Huawei Certified Datacom Professional —Fast Composite Certification) Training Such training aims to provide the fast track for the participants with other vendor certificate. The training content covers the knowledge of HCDP-IESN, HCDP-IERN and HCDP-IENP.

3. Training Related to HCDP-Carrier IP Certification

l HCDP-BCAN (Huawei Certified Datacom Professional — Building Carrier Access Network) Training Such training aims to provide guidance to participants in learning contents related to the HCDP-BCAN test (HC-121 HCDP-BCAN). The training covers Ethernet, STP/RSTP/MSTP, VLAN, and access authentication technologies, and their implementation in Huawei products.

l HCDP-BCRN (Huawei Certified Datacom Professional — Building Carrier Routing Network) Training Such training aims to provide guidance to participants in learning contents related to the HCDP-BCRN test (HC-122 HCDP-BCRN). The training covers the principles of general dynamic routing protocols such as IPv4/IPv6, principles of routing and routing control, and their implementation in Huawei products.

Definition of HCIP-Routing & Switching(Fast Track) HCIP-Routing & Switching-Fast training covers advanced knowledge and skills required for enterprise networks. HCIP-Routing & Switching-Fast certified engineers are capable of building complete small- and medium-sized enterprise networks that fully integrate the voice, wireless, cloud, security, and storage applications required by enterprises, meeting the networking requirements of various applications, and ensuring high security, availability, and reliability.

Positioning
HCIP-Routing & Switching-Fast Focus on network fundamentals, principles of switches and routers, TCP/IP protocol suite, routing protocols, access control, troubleshooting of network faults, and installation and commissioning of Huawei routing and switching equipment. HCIP-Routing & Switching-Fast certificate holders will have enhanced abilities in terms of comprehensive planning, configuration, O&M, and troubleshooting on medium- and large-sized networks.

Why HCIP-Routing & Switching(Fast Track)=>
Quick buildup of comprehensive skills in project planning, design, implementation, O&M, troubleshooting, and optimization that are needed for technology directors (TDs) of small- and medium-sized projects and technology engineers (TEs) of large projects.
• Well-developed competence as a senior network engineer for small- and medium-sized enterprise networks.
• An in-depth understanding of small- and medium-sized enterprise networks and general network technologies, and the ability to design small- and medium-sized enterprise networks and implement the design using Huawei network equipment.
• Network engineers with HCIP-Routing & Switching-Fast certification are of special importance to the business development of enterprises.

Content
The HCIP-Routing & Switching curriculum includes the following: Fast Deployment of Enterprise Routing Network (OSPF, ISIS, BGP, IP Multicast, Route Control), Fast Deployment of Enterprise Switching Network (Advanced Features of Switches, RSTP, MSTP), Improving Enterprise Network Service Bearer Capability (MPLS, MPLS VPN), Optimizing Enterprise Network Access Control and Manageability (DHCP, eSight, Agile Controller), Improving Enterprise Network Service Quality (QoS), Improving Enterprise Network Security and High Reliability (Firewall Technology, VRRP, BFD), Next-Generation Enterprise Network Development Trends (SDN, VXLAN, NFV), Implementing Enterprise-level Network Engineering Project (Network Planning, Network Design, Network Implementation, Network Maintenance, Network Troubleshooting, Network Optimization, Network Migration).

Examinees can update the validity date of the certificate in any of the following cases:
• Pass any test of the current certification.
• pass any test of the higher level certification which from the same technical direction of the current certification.
• pass any test of the same or higher level certification which from the ICT Infrastructure Certification.



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Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

Höhere Gewalt

Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

Technisches Versagen

Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

Kriminelle Ursachen

Hackerangriffe

Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

Physischer Angriff

Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.

Erpressung

Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:

Cyber-Kosten:

  • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
  • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
  • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
  • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

  • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
  • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
  • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
  • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
  • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
  • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
  • Rechtsverteidigungskosten

Cyber-Eigenschäden:

  • Betriebsunterbrechung
  • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
  • Mehrkosten
  • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
  • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
  • Cyber-Erpressung
  • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
  • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
  • Cyber-Betrug