Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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Exam Number : H12-222
Exam Name : HCNP-R&S-IESN (Implementing Enterprise Routing & Switching)
Vendor Name : Huawei
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HCIA-Routing & Switching certification covers basic knowledge and skills required for enterprise networks. HCIA-Routing & Switching curriculum provides trainees the skills needed to configure and maintain small-sized enterprise networks. Network engineers with HCIA-Routing & Switching certifications are able to construct small-sized enterprise networks and integrate voice, wireless, cloud, security, and storage technologies into the networks to support a variety of applications.

HCIA-Routing & Switching is intended for the development of networking professionals who possess basic knowledge and skills in enterprise networks. The certification focuses on technologies involved in small-sized enterprise networks. HCIA-Routing & Switching certified engineers have a basic knowledge in the general technologies involved in small-sized enterprise networks and possess the basic network design abilities.

Routing and switching network is the foundation for all network applications. Enterprises need networks that have a welldesigned architecture, high reliability, and high transmission efficiency. To meet these needs, enterprises must have professional network engineers to construct, maintain, and manage their networks. HCIA-Routing & Switching certified network engineers are able to design and deploy small-sized enterprise networks under the guidance of senior engineers, and perform basic network O&M.
• A basic understanding of small-sized enterprise networks and general network technologies, and the ability to assist in the design of small-sized enterprise networks and implement the design using Huawei routing and switching equipment • Network engineers with HCIA-Routing & Switching certifications are of special importance to the business development of enterprises.

The HCIA-Routing & Switching test covers basic IP network connectivity, TCP/IP technologies, Ethernet technologies such as STP and RSTP, VLAN and Link Aggregation and their implementation within Huawei switches. Routing principles and technologies including RIP and OSPF for IPv4 and IPv6 networks, WAN technologies, IP based security, network management as well as IPv4 and IPv6 based application services.

ExamOutline:HCIA-Routing & Switching test Outline
• TrainingMaterial:HCIA-Routing & Switching Training
• Mock Exam:HCIA-Routing & Switching Mock Exam
• e-LearningCourse:HCIA-Routing & Switching Entry Training, HCIA-Routing & Switching Intermediate Training

HCIP-Routing & Switching certification covers advanced knowledge and skills required for enterprise networks. HCIP-Routing & Switching certified engineers are capable of building complete small- and medium-sized enterprise networks that fully integrate the voice, wireless, cloud, security, and storage applications required by enterprises, meeting the networking requirements of various applications, and ensuring high security, availability, and reliability.

HCIP-Routing & Switching is intended for the development of networking professionals who possess advanced knowledge and skills in enterprise networks. The certification focuses on technologies involved in small- and medium-sized enterprise networks.
and the ability to design small- and medium-sized enterprise networks and implement the design using Huawei network equipment.

HCIP-Routing & Switching certified network engineers are able to construct and manage small- and medium-sized enterprise networks, and design solutions to ensure high security, availability, and reliability for applications on the enterprise networks.
• Network engineers with HCIP-Routing & Switching certifications are of special importance to the business development of enterprises.
The HCIP-Routing & Switching-IERS test covers OSPF, ISIS and BGP routing protocols, Route Control, IP Multicast protocols, and Eth-trunk, Advanced Features Switches, RSTP,MSTP and other two layer network technologies.
• The HCIP-Routing & Switching-IENP test covers MPLS, MPLS VPN, DHCP, VRRP, BFD, Mirroring technologies and Agile Controller, eSight Product Features, IP QoS, Huawei Firewall Technology Basis and SDN, VXLAN, NFV new technologies.
• The HCIP-Routing & Switching-IEEP test covers PDIOI(Network Planning, Network Design, Network Implementation, Network Maintenance, Network Troubleshooting, Network Optimization) and Network Migration.

ExamOutline: HCIP-Routing & Switching-IERS/ IENP/ IEEP test Outline
• Training Material: HCIP-Routing & Switching-IERS Implementing Enterprise Routing and Switching Network Training, HCIPRouting & Switching-IENP Improving Enterprise Network Performance Training, HCIP-Routing & Switching IEEP Implementing Enterprise Network Engineering Project Training
• Mock Exam:HCIP-Routing & Switching-IERS/ IENP/ IEEP Exam
• e-Learning Course: HCIP-Routing & Switching-IERS Training, HCIP-Routing & Switching-IENP Training, HCIP-Routing & Switching-IEEP Training



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Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

Höhere Gewalt

Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

Technisches Versagen

Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

Kriminelle Ursachen

Hackerangriffe

Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

Physischer Angriff

Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.

Erpressung

Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:

Cyber-Kosten:

  • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
  • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
  • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
  • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

  • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
  • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
  • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
  • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
  • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
  • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
  • Rechtsverteidigungskosten

Cyber-Eigenschäden:

  • Betriebsunterbrechung
  • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
  • Mehrkosten
  • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
  • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
  • Cyber-Erpressung
  • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
  • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
  • Cyber-Betrug