Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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Exam Number : H35-480_V3.0-ENU
Exam Name : HCIA-5G-RAN V3.0
Vendor Name : Huawei
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Huawei HCIA-5G-RAN dumps

 

Huawei: Which countries are blocking its 5G technology?

By Reality Check teamBBC News

The US decision to ban its companies from using foreign telecoms providers regarded as a security risk is the latest salvo apparently directed against Chinese tech giant Huawei.

The US has been at the forefront of an effort to restrict the use of Huawei equipment in 5G mobile networks, citing serious security issues.

Huawei is now facing resistance from other governments over the risk that its technology could be used for espionage.

So which other countries are blocking Huawei's 5G technology, and which are allowing it to operate?

This is new technology, in its very early stages of implementation, and many countries are still deciding what role - if any - Huawei should play.

But Huawei says it has now signed more than 40 commercial 5G contracts around the world, including in Europe, the Middle East and Asia.

The Five Eyes

Australia effectively banned Huawei and another Chinese telecom firm, ZTE, last year when it applied national security rules to companies supplying equipment to telecoms firms.

New Zealand has blocked Huawei from supplying one mobile network with 5G equipment, but has not yet ruled out all Huawei 5G contracts completely.

These two countries, along with the UK and Canada, make up the so-called Five Eyes intelligence-sharing network with the US.

The UK is still reviewing its 5G telecoms policy and may allow Huawei to supply "non-core" 5G components, such as antenna masts.

Canada is still weighing up its decision over Huawei.

The United States has effectively blocked all Huawei involvement in its 5G networks.

No Europe-wide decision yet

So far, no European country has formally blocked Huawei, and the majority of the company's current global 5G contracts are with companies operating within Europe.

The EU in March issued recommendations about 5G security, asking member states to review their networks by the end of June and report their findings to the EU Commission.

Despite pressure from the United States, Germany has resisted a ban, and France has not indicated it plans to follow a tough line against the Chinese company.

The Netherlands' largest telecom firm, KPN, has already made clear that it would not allow Huawei to build its "core" 5G infrastructure, but it could supply other equipment considered less sensitive.

The Dutch government is expected to make a decision on using Huawei equipment by the end of June.

A telecoms firm in Russia signed a deal with Huawei on 5G technology during a visit to the country in June by the Chinese president.

Inroads into Asia

South Korea launched commercial 5G services last month, and one of its three carriers has used 5G equipment supplied by Huawei.

5G trials are due to be carried out in India later this year with Huawei one of the companies invited to take part.

However, there are reports that India may limit Huawei's involvement in developing its 5G infrastructure.

Malaysia has already made clear that Huawei can be involved in developing its 5G networks, with the prime minister visiting the company's office in Beijing in April.

South Korea now has a nationwide 5G network

In Indonesia, the country's telecoms minister said earlier this year that it could not afford to be "paranoid" over using Huawei technology.

In Thailand, Huawei has already launched a 5G test project.

Vietnam, which is developing a 5G network, has not officially banned Huawei, although one of the largest largest telecoms carriers is currently using Ericsson technology.

Japan has blocked the use of Huawei equipment for 5G over security fears, although as in other countries, Huawei kit is part of the existing 4G network.

The growth of 5G is likely to lead to other opportunities for Huawei around the world.

The company says it already has 10 confirmed 5G contracts in the Middle East.

The African continent has not been in the forefront of early 5G adoption, but its more advanced economies provide potentially fertile markets.

In South Africa, for example, Huawei has already announced its involvement in a commercial 5G network in Johannesburg with the mobile data provider, Rain.

According to one industry-wide body, there were more than 200 operators in 85 countries investing in 5G networks in some form or another by March this year.

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Zain Kuwait completes 5.5G test with Huawei

Zain Kuwaut said it has achieved speeds of 10 Gigabits per second after completing a 5.5G technology trial on its network in partnership with Chinese vendor Huawei.

The Middle East telco said it was the first operator to complete a trial of this kind in Kuwait’s telecom market. The company also tested Ultra-Reliable Low Latency Communication (URLLC), a key 5.5G feature.

The telco also noted that the exact trial was carried out under supervision and in collaboration with the Communication and Information Technology Regulatory Authority (CITRA).

Zain highlighted that it has invested early in upgrading and enhancing its network’s infrastructure to prepare for the shift towards the 5.5G era.

5.5G, which features uptra-fast speeds and higher efficiency levels, combined with Ultra-Reliable Low Latency Communication (URLLC), which brings reduced latency and ultra-reliable connections, will meet the growing demand of cloud computing, AI, big data, immersive AR/VR experiences and autonomous vehicles, the telco added.

Zain has also recently showcased its network’s readiness for the rollout of 5G New Calling (5GNC), an emerging 5G network capability that paves the way for a new era of voice and video calling and will rely on the capabilities of 5.5G.

5G-Advanced technology, or “5.5G”, will pave the way for a wider adoption of connectivity for industrial settings, John Gao, President of Huawei’s 5.5G domain, previously told RCR Wireless News.

Gao stressed that 5.5G will enable wireless production and flexible manufacturing with its low latency and high reliability, thus accelerating the intelligent transformation of industries.

The executive noted that 5.5G will provide larger system capacities, lower-priced modules and large-scale service provisioning capabilities, which will enable scenarios with hundreds of millions of video connections. Gao also noted that scenarios with more extensively ubiquitous asset logistics can be managed using tags of lower costs and power consumption with 5.5G networks.

He went on to say that the deployment of 5.5G technology will pave the way for harmonized communication and sensing networks to support diverse scenarios like smart air, ground, and maritime transportation as well as smart security.

Huawei believes that previous investments made by operators to deploy 5G network infrastructure will be protected with the future launch of 5G-Advanced. Huawei’s president of wireless solution, Cao Ming, recently said during a media roundtable at Huawei’s 14th Global Mobile Broadband Forum (MBBF), held last month in Dubai, in the United Arab Emirates.

The executive said that 5G-Advanced networks will not require large investments by operators in new network architecture and will be launched using 5G Standalone (SA) networks. He also said that Huawei is working with its partners to make sure that future 5.5G applications, devices and services will be fully compatible with current 5G networks.

Huawei had previously said that it planned to launch a complete set of commercial 5.5G network equipment in 2024.


 


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Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

Höhere Gewalt

Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

Technisches Versagen

Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

Kriminelle Ursachen

Hackerangriffe

Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

Physischer Angriff

Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.

Erpressung

Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:

Cyber-Kosten:

  • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
  • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
  • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
  • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

  • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
  • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
  • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
  • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
  • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
  • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
  • Rechtsverteidigungskosten

Cyber-Eigenschäden:

  • Betriebsunterbrechung
  • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
  • Mehrkosten
  • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
  • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
  • Cyber-Erpressung
  • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
  • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
  • Cyber-Betrug