Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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Exam Number : H35-660_V2.0-ENU
Exam Name : HCIA-5G V2.0
Vendor Name : Huawei
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Huawei V2.0 book


Meng Wanzhou: Oil paintings and books for Huawei executive fighting extradition

Meng Wanzhou on her way to court in Vancouver in September, as part of her fight against extradition to the US

A Chinese Huawei executive who was arrested in Canada a year ago has published an open letter detailing her life on bail and thanking supporters.

Meng Wanzhou - the chief financial officer and daughter of Huawei's founder - is fighting extradition to the US on charges of violating sanctions against Iran.

In her widely read letter, she said she had time to "read a book" and "complete an oil painting" while on bail.

Her arrest sparked a diplomatic row.

China has always said the charges against Ms Meng are politically motivated.

Shortly after her arrest, two Canadians were detained in China, but Beijing says the cases are not related to Ms Meng.

Michael Spavor, a consultant with links to North Korea, and Michael Kovrig, a former diplomat who works for an NGO, are accused of spying - although Canada has called their detention "arbitrary".

They are being held in a detention centre and are allowed only infrequent visits from consular staff. On Monday, Mr Kovrig's employer tweeted that he had yet to see a lawyer or his family.

In April, it was reported that both men were being interrogated for between six to eight hours a day, and were sometimes subject to 24-hour artificial lighting.

In July, guards reportedly confiscated Mr Kovrig's reading glasses.

What has Meng Wanzhou said?

Ms Weng's letter was published on the Huawei website and on social media, on the anniversary of her detention.

In it, she thanked her supporters in Canada, saying the applause in the public gallery after the court granted her bail, 11 days into her detention, had "made her burst into tears".

As part of the bail conditions, Ms Meng was given an electronic tag, and a 23:00-06:00 curfew, but was allowed to travel around much of Vancouver.

"When I was in Shenzhen [in China], time used to pass by very quickly," Ms Meng wrote on Sunday night.

"I always felt like I was being stretched thin and that there was never enough time to get everything done."

Now, she wrote, time passes so slowly "I have enough time to read a book from cover to cover. I can take the time to discuss minutiae with my colleagues or to carefully complete an oil painting".

She also praised "the kindness of people here in Canada", and "the kindness of the correctional officers and inmates at the Alouette Correctional Center for Women" where she was detained.

Ms Meng is fighting extradition to the US, where she is wanted for a host of charges, including evading sanctions on Iran - something she and Huawei deny. Her case is due to be heard in January.

She made no comment on the allegations in the letter.

BBC Monitoring said the version of the letter posted on Huawei's social media channel had had more than 60 million views by Monday morning.

'The princess of Chinese tech'

News of Meng Wanzhou's arrest in 2018 broke just after China's president Xi Jinping and Donald Trump sat down to dinner in Buenos Aires, Argentina at the G20 summit, to thrash out trade war issues.

The two leaders came to an understanding and a truce was signed - but thousands of miles away in Canada, a new battle was just beginning.

Ms Meng's arrest was seen as a turning point in the US-China trade war; an illustration of how serious the Trump administration was about going after Huawei - particularly on issues like technology theft and violations of American law.

For China, Ms Meng's arrest was seen as an attack like no other. If Huawei is the crown jewel of Chinese tech, then Ms Meng is its princess.

Although Beijing denies it, the detention of the two Canadians Mr Kovrig and Mr Spavor was widely seen as punishment for taking sides - and a warning to other countries who might consider copying Canada's decision.

What is happening to Michael Spavor and Michael Kovrig? Michael Spavor (L) and Michael Kovrig have been held since December

The two Canadians were detained in December, shortly after Ms Weng was detained.

Their detention led to a diplomatic and trade row, with China blocking tens millions of dollars' worth of Canadian pork and vegetable oil exports.

They were formally arrested in May, and can be held for up to 13-and-a-half-months before charges are filed, the Canadian government says.

In September, Canadian Prime Minister Justin Trudeau accused China of "using arbitrary detention as a tool to achieve political goals".

And last month, Canada's new foreign affairs minister told his Chinese counterpart the two men's case was his "absolute priority".

"In particular, I expressed my concern and the concern of all Canadians regarding the conditions of their detention," Francois-Philippe Champagne said.

But China has rejected accusations of arbitrary detention, saying the two Canadians had "engaged in suspected activities endangering national security".

China's ambassador to Canada, Cong Peiwu, also accused Canada of "arbitrarily detaining [Meng Wanzhou], which violates her legitimate rights".

"These two cases they are very much different in nature," he said. "For those two Canadian citizens there is no arbitrary arrest at all."

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Huawei MediaPad M5 Lite 8.0

No result found, try new keyword!Huawei MediaPad M5 Lite 8.0 is released in last month of March 2019. Huawei MediaPad is one of the top smartphone and tablet companies in the market. The reason is pretty simple, they manufacture ...

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Deals for the deluxe P30 Pro started at around £32 a month with nothing to pay upfront. If you want to buy it now, you'll probably need to pick up a refurbished handset. So you can pick it up for a bit of a bargain.

For that monthly outlay, you'll be getting the best camera setup we've ever seen on a smartphone, with a powerful quad-lens camera that could rival professional DLRs.

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We don't have any deals for the Huawei P30 Pro at the moment. But you should be able to buy the phone refurbished.

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The Huawei P30 Pro comes with four powerful camera lenses that work together to produce incredibly detailed, professional-looking results with little or no effort from the user.

It's got an amazing 50x zoom that'll pick up faraway details you'd never be able to spot with your naked eye.

And the improved depth sensor makes your photos look more realistic. It improves augmented reality apps too.

Big battery

The P30 Pro is powered by a huge 4,200mAh battery that promises to deliver more than a day of heavy use on a single charge.

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Huawei's latest handset is available in four glossy colourways so you'll be able to find the ideal colour to suit your style.

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FAQs What are the best Huawei P30 Pro deals?

Deals for the deluxe P30 Pro begin at around £32 a month with nothing to pay upfront. Or if you prefer to buy it outright, SIM-free prices started at £599 at the time of release.

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The Huawei P30 Pro comes with four powerful camera lenses that work together to produce incredibly detailed, professional-looking results with little or no effort from the user.

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Huawei's latest handset is available in four glossy colourways so you'll be able to find the ideal colour to suit your style.


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Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

Höhere Gewalt

Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

Technisches Versagen

Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

Kriminelle Ursachen


Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

Physischer Angriff

Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.


Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:


  • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
  • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
  • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
  • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

  • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
  • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
  • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
  • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
  • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
  • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
  • Rechtsverteidigungskosten


  • Betriebsunterbrechung
  • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
  • Mehrkosten
  • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
  • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
  • Cyber-Erpressung
  • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
  • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
  • Cyber-Betrug