Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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Hitachi HCE-5920 : Certified Specialist: Pentaho Data Integration Implementation exam Dumps

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Exam Number : HCE-5920
Exam Name : Certified Specialist: Pentaho Data Integration Implementation
Vendor Name : Hitachi
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JEE Main Free Mock Test with Solutions 2024: FREE Test Series PDF with Answer Key

JEE Main Mock Test Online: The Joint Entrance exam (JEE) is divided into two phases: JEE Main and JEE Advanced. JEE serves as a gateway for students to take a step into the top engineering institutes like the Indian Institutes of Technology (IITs) and the National Institutes of Technology (NITs). The first level is JEE Main, after which the students have to pass JEE Advanced to get into IITs. To know more about JEE read, JEE Main Marking Scheme and Section-wise Marks.

As per the NTA exam Calendar for the Academic Year 2024–25, the JEE Main 2024 dates are as follows:

  • Session 1: 24 January 2024 and 1 February 2024
  • Session 2: 1st April, 2024, and 15th April, 2024
  • Thus, students should start revising the concepts and solving as many mock tests and previous years’ papers as possible. JEE aspirants can find the JEE Mains mock test papers here to download and solve. The JEE Main demo test paper with answer key is provided here for your reference and can be downloaded for free in PDF format.

    Read:

    JEE Main 2024 Important and Scoring Chapters

    30 Days JEE Mains 2024 Strategy

    JEE Mains 2024 Highlights

    The total time duration for Paper 1 (B.E. /B.Tech.) is given in the table below:

    Paper

    Subjects Total Time Duration

    Subject

    For Non-PwD Candidates

    *For PwD Candidates

    Paper 1

    (B.E./B.Tech.)

    Physics, Chemistry,

    and Mathematics

    3 hours

    4 hours

    •Note: - Compensatory time for PwD Candidates of 20 minutes for a one-hour examination

    Read

    The subjects, types of questions and mode of examination for JEE Main 2024 are mentioned in the table below:

    PAPER

    SUBJECTS

    TYPE OF QUESTIONS

    MODE OF EXAMINATION

    Paper 1: B.E./B.Tech.

    Mathematics, Physics and Chemistry

    Objective Type - Multiple Choice Questions (MCQs) and Questions for which the answer is a numerical value, with equal weightage to Mathematics, Physics, and Chemistry

    "Computer Based Test (CBT)" mode only

    In the table below you will find the subject-wise division of sections and marks for JEE Mains 2024.

    Paper1: B.E./ B. Tech. in Computer Based Test (CBT) mode:

    1. Subject-wise distribution of Questions, Total Number of Questions, and Marks

    Subject

    Section A

    Section B

    Marks

    Mathematics

    20* 

    10* 

    100

    Physics

    20* 

    10* 

    100

    Chemistry

    20* 

    10* 

    100

    Total

    90

    300

    * Each Subject will have two sections. 

    Section A: Multiple-Choice Questions (MCQs)

    Section B: Questions without choices (Attempt any 5 out of 10)

    JEE Mains Online: Important Instructions

    JEE Main 2024 will be organised in online mode, for which students have to visit the exam centres and login into their systems to see and solve the JEE Main question paper. Before sitting for the JEE Mains online exam in 2024, aspirants should be aware of a few important instructions that will be given to them during the exam as well. Click on the link below to download the important JEE Main Instructions:

    JEE Main Mock Test 2024

    Not much time is left in the JEE Mains 2024, so students should start revising all the subjects and solving the JEE Main demo papers in 2024. Here you will find the JEE Main mock test for the B.Tech. (Paper 1) field, which comprises 90 questions from Mathematics, Physics, and Chemistry.  The number of questions will be equally divided in three subjects thus 30 questions will be there from each subject. To download the JEE Main mock test and solution PDF, click on the links below.

    *The links will be updated soon.

    Importance of JEE Mains Mock Test Paper 2024

    Will you go to war without knowing how to fight? Who will be against you? How do you have to fight? This is the same when they talk about important entrance exams. These exams are not less than a war, and thus applicants should know all about them if they want to succeed. Solving a high number of mock tests and previous year papers improves the chances of getting a good score and making a place on the merit list. Thus, all the JEE Main aspirants are suggested to start solving the mock tests. Solving a JEE mock test paper will lead to:

  • Strategy Development
  • Motivation and Focus
  • Confidence Building
  • Revision and Reinforcement
  • Adaptation to exam Conditions
  • Performance Evaluation
  • Time Management Practice
  • Familiarity with exam Pattern
  • Check Below JEE Main Important Resources:


    Best free PDF editors in 2023

    The best free PDF editors let you create, edit, and work together on files without any subscriptions or fees. 

    We all know how important PDF files are. They literally keep millions of businesses on the same page. The best PDF editors we've tried - yes, even free versions - let you create and design seriously professional documents. There are limitations, and few free PDF editing software is as feature-packed as the likes of Adobe Acrobat. But add in e-signatures, forms, and enhanced security tools, and you do have some of the best Adobe Acrobat alternatives without any subscriptions or lifetime licenses. 

    Our team of PDF experts have been hand-testing the top-rated apps and platforms to find out which is really the best. Here's what they learned and why they recommend using these apps and platforms online, on desktop, and on mobile. As part of their review process, we’ve tested out each free PDF app’s integrated tools, filetype support, collaboration and cloud storage facilities. Optional pricing upgrades are always noted, but every apps and platforms they tried here offers a completely free PDF editor. 

    Top 3 editor's picks

    You may have to pay for these, but they're some the top PDF software we've tried. 

    What's the best free PDF editors in 2024?

    Why you can trust TechRadar They spend hours testing every product or service they review, so you can be sure you’re buying the best. Find out more about how they test.

    Best free PDF editor overall

    (Image credit: PDF24)

    A streamlined PDF creator and editor offered for free

    Specifications

    Platform: PC

    Plan: Free

    Developer: Geek Software

    Features include: PDF editor, PDF reader, conversion, merging, eSign, OCR

    Reasons to buy +

    Completely free

    +

    Fast and light

    +

    Lots of features for every need

    Reasons to avoid -

    Occasionally a bit clunky

    -

    Windows-only

    PDF24 Creator is their pick for best free PDF editor overall. You may find the website a tad dated, but the tool is surprisingly feature-rich.

    The free PDF editor is a very small program that can easily run on older systems - ideal, then, for businesses with limited resources or a suite of low-spec computers.

    When they tested the software, they rated it as one of the best free tools, going above and beyond what's expected. It’s full of features, and has everything needed to create and edit PDF documents. While they noted that it lacked more advanced features usually found in premium tools like Adobe Acrobat DC, they felt that most users will find more than enough utility within PDF24 Creator. 

    The Windows-only tool serves up a PDF editor for free document creation, PDF merging, PDF compressing, and converting PDFs into other formats. You can even optimize a PDF for the web or apply OCR to a PDF, so that you can convert scanned images to text.

    PDF24 Creator has a minimalistic user interface and it’s clear that the program is designed around speed first and foremost. The interface can feel a little clunky at times, but all of the important features are easy to find and when you first open the software, you’re presented with a grid of editing options. And yes, their top choice for best free PDF editor is genuinely free and unlimited, through and through.

    Read their full PDF24 Creator review 

    Best free PDF editor online

    (Image credit: PDF Candy)

    Free online PDF editor with something for everyone

    Specifications

    Platform: Web, PC

    Plan: Free, Subscription, Perpetual license

    Developer: PDF Candy

    Features include: PDF editor, PDF reader, conversion, compression, merging, eSign

    Reasons to buy +

    Free online editor

    +

    Loads of features and tools

    +

    OCR capabilities

    +

    Windows version available

    Reasons to avoid -

    No Mac or mobile apps

    -

    Free version only allows for one task each hour

    PDF Candy is ideal if you want a free online PDF editor and a way to edit PDF files in your browser. You’ll also find a desktop version available for Windows if you upgrade to the lifetime license. 

    Easily one of the best free PDF editors online, it's delightfully simple to use - everything is clean, clear, and easy to navigate. And it's absolutely packed with functionality, with an impressive 47 different tools for editing, altering, converting PDF files, and so much more. During their tests, they found PDF editing as effortless every other function in the software, delighted that "editing text in a PDF file isn’t a million miles away from editing a word processor document."

    The free version places a one-task-per-hour limit - e.g., processing an edited PDF file or converting a document. This can be removed by setting up a monthly or annual subscription, or purchasing it outright for a one-off payment. The latter also grants access to the Windows-only desktop PDF editor app. If restriction is too much to bear, and you don't need everything the platform offers, try PDF24 Creator - it's fully free across the board. 

    Elsewhere, PDF Candy has a good amount of useful tools and features. This includes the option to edit PDF files online, convert documents to a variety of formats, merge and compress PDFs. 

    On top of that, PDF Candy lets you easily extract text and images, resize pages, and add watermarks.  In total, there are an impressive 47 different tools to help you manage and edit PDF files. All features are found in a handy list of buttons, so you won't spend ages looking for what you need. Overall, they found service delightfully simple, but as with even the best free PDF editors, an upgrade unlocks its full potential.   

    Read their full PDF Candy review

    Best free PDF editor for Android and iPhone

    (Image credit: SmallPDF)

    The lightweight, online, conversion king of PDF editors

    Specifications

    Platform: Web, Windows, Android, iOS

    Plan: Free, Subscription

    Developer: Smallpdf

    Features include: PDF editor, PDF reader, scanner, conversion, compression

    Reasons to buy +

    Cloud-based

    +

    Powerful range of tools

    +

    Allows you to convert PDFs to other formats

    +

    Cross-platform (for a price)

    Reasons to avoid -

    Can only process two documents per day

    -

    Extra cost for desktop app

    Smallpdf was created with a single goal in mind: edit and compress PDFs. 

    But what sets it apart from the competition is its extensive multi-lingual support, available in 24 different languages and used in 195 countries around the world.  

    Long considered one of the best free PDF editors online - you can make all the changes you need from your browser - the user experience is excellent and incredibly easy to use. When they tested Smallpdf, they found the lightweight, cloud-based tool perfect for simple tasks, but not ideal for high-volume editing or advanced features. 

    We found using the PDF editor very straightforward. Upload your PDF via the website, and begin making annotations and taking notes. They also liked the option to add pictures, text and shapes to a PDF. Once the necessary changes are made, Smallpdf gave us the option to compress a PDF or export it as a Word, Excel or PowerPoint file.

    There are restrictions, as you'll find in many of the best free PDF editors. Chiefly, you're locked to two tasks per day - so a fully free tool like PDF24 Creator or Canva might be a better choice for more consistent use. 

    If you want even more functionality, you can upgrade to Smallpdf’s premium edition. While the web version is slightly cheaper, you can pay a bit more to take advantage of the desktop version so you can work offline. Alongside a web PDF editor and Windows desktop app, users can also install the PDF editor on Android and iOS phones.

    Read their full Smallpdf review 

    Best free PDF editor for signatures

    DocHub's PDF editor during their tests

    (Image credit: DocHub)

    Edit, share, and sign documents

    Specifications

    Platform: Web, Windows, Mac, Android, iOS

    Plan: Free, subscription

    Developer: DocHub

    Features include: PDF editor, eSign, Google and Dropbox integration

    Reasons to buy +

    Great range of signature options

    +

    Google and Dropbox integration

    +

    Wide filetype support

    +

    Easy to use

    Reasons to avoid -

    Minor glitches were reported by some users.

    -

    Not made for demanding, advanced workflows

    If you’re looking for a free PDF editor with signing capabilities, DocHub is worth considering. When they went hands-on with the software, they described it as “a true gem, delivering comprehensive functionality without burdening users with unnecessary expenses.” 

    The free plan has limits, but it’s relatively generous if you’re only a casual user. You’re allowed 2,000 documents, five eSignatures, three sign requests, and three email attachments per day. The pro plan, which costs $10 per user per month, lifts these restrictions for unlimited document editing. Subscribing also adds a handful of features and tools, like a wide font library and the ability to add drop-down menus to PDFs. 

    During their time with DocHub, they found it intuitive and easy to navigate, with a good line in security for businesses. You’ll find an excellent page manager, where you can rearrange, label, rotate, add, or delete pages - just right click for all the options. And field creation was equally wide-ranging, letting you add extras like text boxes and legally binding signatures. Sharing and collaboration tools, ensuring you get documents signed by others, are also plentiful. 

    But it’s not as feature-filled as dedicated PDF editors, and on the free plan, you’ll only have access to three basic fonts - Courier New, Times New Roman, Helvetica. But for getting your documents signed, it's absolutely up to job. 

    Read their full DocHub review 

    Best free PDF editor for designers

    Building a templated PDF document in the free Canva PDF Editor

    (Image credit: Canva)

    Design and edit PDFs right in your browser

    Specifications

    Platform: Web, Windows, Mac, iOS, Android

    Plan: Free, Subscription

    Developer: Canva

    Features include: PDF editor, reader, designer

    Reasons to buy +

    Incredibly easy to use

    +

    Free with very few limits

    +

    Ideal for designing documents

    Reasons to avoid -

    Lacks advanced tools

    -

    Browser-based only

    -

    No OCR and eSign tools

    Canva’s free PDF editor is a good choice if you’re looking to create documents from scratch or re-edit an existing file. 

    Like the platform’s design app and logo maker, the browser-based editor is pure child’s play.  If you’re familiar with Canva’s other free tools, you won’t find any surprises here. And if you’ve never made or edited a PDF document before, it won’t take long to master the tools and build professional-looking assets. Select an element, drag it into position, and that’s that. It offers a decent amount of customization. You’ll also find it packed with stock images and vector graphics that can be added to your file. 

    When they reviewed Canva - one of the best free PDF editors with design capabilities - they were especially impressed with its ability to turn existing PDFs into editable documents. Upload your file and the tool smartly identifies the different elements on the page - text boxes, images, background colors, that sort of thing. You’re then free to click and modify (or delete) any of these. 

    There is also an app library for added utility. This is where you can connect your cloud storage services, add links, and even create QR codes. This is all free to use, but there is a monthly/annual subscription available, adding business-focused utilities such as brand kits, more cloud storage, premium graphics, and social media scheduling. Subscribers gain access to these across the Canva platform; it’s not limited to the PDF editing tool.

    Effortless is, perhaps, the best way to describe this top free PDF editor. But while the tool excels on the design side, it lacks many of the advanced features you’ll find in full-fat software like Adobe Acrobat. There’s no OCR, for example, and no eSign integration. That makes it best for teams and marketing departments largely focused on designing their own PDF assets. 

    Read their full Canva PDF Editor review 

    Best free PDF editor for Mac

    (Image credit: Apple)

    Read, take notes, and much much more

    Specifications

    Platform: Mac

    Plan: Free

    Developer: Apple

    Features include: PDF manipulator, reader, highlighter, annotations

    Reasons to buy +

    Included with all Macs

    +

    Image-editing tools included

    +

    Can annotate and add signatures to PDFs

    Reasons to avoid -

    Only available for macOS

    -

    Lacks OCR

    Apple’s Preview app is free, and as you’d imagine, only available on Apple devices like the MacBook. It’s designed to let you preview many different image formats, but its most interesting feature is its ability to view, interact with, and manipulate PDFs.

    After testing their choice for best free PDF editor for Mac, they concluded that Apple’s product was a remarkably powerful editor, allowing you to perform what could be considered advanced content manipulation and note taking tools.

    The basics are seamless: open a file, scroll through the pages, search for specific words, print the whole document, or just parts of it, fill in specific fields, add notes, it’s all there, and you can’t really ask for an easier-to-use PDF reader.

    But Preview goes one better: you can manipulate PDFs files to a certain extent. There's no text editing, but you can reorder pages, rotate them, and even delete them. 

    On the downside, despite being one of the best free PDF editors on the market, it lacks OCR tools. But most other functions should cater for most users. For custom PDF creation, you have the option of copying and pasting pages into new documents - as long as those original PDFs allow you to copy their pages.

    Read their full Apple Preview review 

    Best free PDF editor for minor edits

    (Image credit: I Love PDF)

    An effective tool to modify PDFs online

    Specifications

    Platform: Windows, Mac, Android, iPhone, Web

    Plan: Free, Subscription

    Developer: iLovePDF

    Features include: PDF manipulator, scanner, compression, conversion, protection, merge, OCR

    Reasons to buy +

    Very easy to use

    +

    Mostly free online service

    +

    Some clever tools

    +

    Good for minor document manipulation

    +

    Multi-platform

    Reasons to avoid -

    Certain features require subscription

    -

    Not a full PDF editor

    I Love PDF is an online service that allows you to manipulate PDF files in a number of ways. You can merge files together, split a single one into multiples, and convert documents to and from the PDF format. The only thing you can't do is alter the original content of a PDF, although you can add additional text boxes, images and shapes.

    So, it’s not a full PDF editor like Adobe Acrobat DC. In fact, they noted in their review of the PDF editing tool that while it lets you manipulate documents in many ways, the drawback is that you can’t actually change the existing content of these files. You can only add extra text boxes, shapes, images, and the like. 

    Despite this, it does contain a number of interesting features that are cleverly implemented. This includes being able to use your phone’s camera to scan pages, and have them appear back on your page on your computer, once done. You can easily add page numbers to every page, or even a watermark, and of course add a digital electronic signature to a document.

    The online PDF editor is free, as long as you access it from a web browser. A handful of tools have limited functionality in this way, but should be suitable for most people’s needs. 

    If you require more advanced features like OCR and offline PDF editing , then you’ll need to consider subscribing.  

    Read their full I Love PDF review 

    Best free PDF editor for data security

    (Image credit: Sejda)

    Best free PDF editor for data security

    Specifications

    Platform: Web, Windows, Mac, Linux

    Plan: Free, Subscription

    Developer: Sejda

    Features inlcude: PDF editor, compression, conversion, protection, merge, eSign

    Reasons to buy +

    No account required

    +

    Simple and easy to use interface

    +

    Uploaded files are deleted after 2 hours

    Reasons to avoid -

    File size limitations

    -

    Time restrictions on free tier

    Sejda, like PDF Candy and Smallpdf, is one of the best free PDF editors available online in your browser. You can also grab a separate free downloadable, editable PDF app for desktops. 

    What sets it apart from other similar offerings, however, are its security features. All files uploaded to the service are automatically wiped from its servers after two hours. This means you can use it to work on sensitive documents without having to be panic about your data being leaked or stolen.

    Sejda as a convincingly power PDF editor - in their tests, they found that using it is incredibly self-explanatory, and it was frankly difficult to fault the tools on offer. On the other hand, they were disappointed by the lack of precision over layout and movement controls. In fact, during their time on the platform, they were noted a big flaw: "While you will find that it is possible to edit text, you're likely to find that fonts are changed, making it apparent precisely where edits have been made."

    Sejda also offers a desktop version with the biggest difference being that all of the processing is handled locally as opposed to in the cloud. Regardless of which free version you choose, Sejda limits you to working on a maximum of three tasks per day, one file at a time and files can’t be larger than 50MB or 200 pages.

    In addition to being able to edit PDF text, you can add new text as well as images including shapes and drawings. Sejda also lets you add annotations, create forms, whiteout sections of a document and more. However, it's worth noting that free users will get hit by the file size and time restrictions. For those that do decide to upgrade, Sejda is available as a weekly, monthly or annual subscription though there are discounts for larger teams with multiple users.

    Read their full Sejda review 

    Best free PDF editor: FAQs What is a PDF editor?

    A PDF editor lets you assemble a Portable Document Format (PDF) file from scratch, as well as amend the content of existing PDF files. The format was released by Adobe in 1993 as a way to standardize documents viewed across different platforms, devices, and screens. Most PDF editors come with the ability to convert, or batch convert, common file types such as Microsoft Office’s Word, PowerPoint, and Excel to and from the PDF format. You’ll also find more advanced tools like optical character recognition (OCR) software. 

    Are the best free PDF editors good?

    Whether or not a free PDF editor is best for you will largely depend on how you’ll use it, and where. While there are some free PDF desktop apps that work offline, they don’t always feature multi-platform and mobile support. Many others are only available online in your browser. You'll find some have extra features, complete with the best PDF merger tools and best PDF compressors for most home and office uses. But others are bereft of anything but the basics. So, it can be hit-and-miss. Free PDF editors can also impose usage limits, such as the amount of files you can import, or export, per day. As such, they’re often better for light users, or to get a taste for the tool.  After testing out paid-for editors, they wanted to take a look at the good and the bad of the best free PDF editors to see what's there and what's not and whether a free PDF editor is a good alternative to a paid app. 

    Should I use a free PDF editor?

    Free PDF editors are popular and good for general use, though they lack the advantages and features of paid versions. 

    Many free tools impose limits that can only be unlocked with a lifetime license or subscription. If you open and editor a lot of PDF documents, you'll need to be selective choosing the best free PDF editor. This is one of the main reasons why they loved PDF24 Creator and if you're a heavy PDF user, this is the one they recommend. 

    Most free PDF editing software, however, is fine for occasional or semi-regular use. If you don't need a lot of features and fancy tools, there's plenty of options out there. 

    Where businesses may hesitate in choosing a free PDF editor over a paid app is data security. It's worth being aware of some of the reasons why organizations often tend to go premium in their guide 5 reasons why you should avoid free PDF editors

    How do I edit a PDF for free?

    All PDF editors are designed differently - although tools and layouts follow a similar pattern. We’ve covered several ways to alter documents in the most popular paid-for and free PDF editors with their guide How to edit a PDF.

    We've also highlighted the best method in Sedja PDF editor in their guide How to edit a PDF for free.

    Is there a completely free PDF editor?

    PDF24 Creator is a completely free PDF editor. It's free of charge, free of spyware, and it's their pick for best free PDF editor overall. But there are loads of amazing free PDF editing software depending on your needs and device/platform - many also include paid-for upgrades for premium features. 

    Does Windows 10 have a free PDF editor?

    Windows 10 doesn't include a built-in free PDF editor. You'll need to download a third-party app to create and edit any PDF files. However, like most browsers, the Windows 10 Edge browser features one of the best free PDF readers. It's a little basic, but ideal for quickly viewing and highlighting documents online. 

    How to choose the best free PDF editor for you

    Trying to decide which free PDF editor is best for you? Free PDF software tends to be less feature-filled than premium counterparts like out Editor's Picks. But there are a few features to look out for. 

    Document editingMake sure you can edit documents. We've tested plenty of the best PDF readers Windows and the best PDF readers for Mac, and while some let you modify a document, they don't offer full editing capabilities. You don't want editing software that won't let you design a document from scratch.

    Collaboration toolsPDFs are essential in digitally minded organization - so check your free PDF editor has tools for sharing, commenting, leaving notes, and making annotations to documents.

    eSignaturesWith uses from HR to sales, digital signatures are fast becoming business-critical. Some of the top-rated free tools include the best eSign software for collecting and securely storing legally binding signed documents. 

    Converter A really good free PDF editor will include conversion tools, letting you change a filetype from or to an editable PDF document. We've hand-tested everything from the best Word to PDF converters to the best PDF to AutoCAD converters, and they know how useful this feature is for all kinds of workflows. 

    Cloud storage Reducing and saving storage space is one of the big benefits to PDF documents, so it's worth checking whether the best cloud storage is integrated into the platform. This will mean you can easily and securely access and share documents from connected devices. 

    Optical character recognition Optical character recognition (OCR) may be a nice-to-have for some users, but it will be essential for anyone with too many paper files unsecured and taking up space. When a free PDF editor has the best OCR software equipped, it can scan and convert paper documents into digital documents, making them easy to securely store.

    How they test the best free PDF editors

    We've tested a host of PDF apps, including the best PDF readers for Android and the best PDF to PowerPoint converters. They take the same user-centric approach to all their testing, reviewing, and rating. We've looking for seamless user experiences, clear signposting, documentation, and support. We're also looking for toolkits that match the workflows of intended users. 

    To test for the best free PDF editors, they first set up an account with the relevant software platform, whether as a download or as an online service. 

    We then tested the service using a handful of PDF files to see how the PDF editor could handle editing not just text, but also images, as well as tables imported from Microsoft Excel. 

    The aim was to push each software platform to see whether it could simply and easily not just edit a range of content types but also do so faithfully and consistently without introducing formatting issues or similar problems.

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    Best PDF editors 2024: Their top picks

    It’s likely that you regularly come across or work with PDF files—they’re ubiquitous in their modern cross-platform world. Most of the time, when viewing a PDF, you can enjoy free software that allows you to read or comment on these files. But what if you need to edit them as well? That’s where a PDF editor comes in.

    The best PDF editors allows you to edit, create, alter, and convert PDF files just like you would with any other text document. Adobe Acrobat is the most famous option for most people. But while it’s excellent both in features and utility, it’s also pretty expensive. Thankfully, in exact years a whole host of third-party PDF editors have sprung up in order to provide less expensive alternatives.

    Here at PCWorld we’ve tested many of these top PDF editors and curated a list of the very best. With different use cases in mind, we’ve included picks for the best overall, best budget option, and even a recommendation for the best free PDF editor—because sometimes you just don’t want to pay for the basics. Check out their recommendations below to find the best PDF editor for you.

    Update 12/18/2023: To include Foxit PDF Editor 13 as their new choice for best overall PDF editor runner-up. Read more about this excellent alternative to Acrobat in their summary below.

    Adobe Acrobat Pro DC – Best overall

    Pros

  • Easily navigable tabbed interface
  • Comprehensive PDF editing features
  • Streamlined sharing feature makes it easier to fill documents and get signatures
  • Cons

  • Rich feature set can be overwhelming for new users
  • Price When Reviewed: $19.90/mo I $239.88/yr

    Adobe Acrobat Pro DC remains the industry standard for good reason. Its rich combination of creation, editing, reviewing, and security features are mimicked by the best alternative options, but they feel Acrobat still does it best. Its exact interface redesign makes it much easier to navigate through its robust toolset than the nested menus of yore, and its cloud subscription option puts its advanced features within reach of more individuals and small businesses. (See how it compares to the Adobe Acrobat Standard DC.)

    Though many of its features are available in other, cheaper PDF editors, Acrobat is still the editor against which all others are judged.

    Read their full Adobe Acrobat Pro DC review

    Foxit PDF Editor 13 – Best overall runner-up

    Pros

  • Multi-platform
  • Business-ready capabilities
  • AI integration helps with document editing
  • Cons

  • Can be expensive depending on product license
  • Price When Reviewed: $179.99 (Standard version, perpetual license)

    Foxit PDF Editor 13 hits all the right notes for a premium PDF editor and can even take on the formidable Adobe Acrobat. It’s packed with features that are sure to please power users—all the requisite content editing tools; review and markup features; form fill and signing support; and robust security options for sensitive documents, such as permissions, password protection, and data redaction. It supports tons of file formats, and adding hyperlinks, images, and files to a PDF is trouble-free.

    Indeed, ease-of-use is one of Foxit’s great strengths. The program uses a Microsoft Office-style ribbon interface which groups tasks in a familiar and intuitive interface, making for a seamless integration with your workflow. It also provides ChatGPT integration so you can easily get help with your documents from an AI assistant. Yes, it’s priced on the higher side for a PDF editor, but with all it has going for it, Nitro PDF Pro more than earns its keep. Plus, you can try it out for free for seven days to see if you like it before making a commitment. If you’re looking for an Acrobat replacement, you won’t find many better.

    Read their full Foxit PDF Editor review

    EaseUS PDF editor – Best budget option

    Pros

  • Full set of editing tools
  • Annotation options enable easy collaboration
  • Straightforward interface
  • Cons

  • Windows only
  • Needs subscription to remove usage limits
  • Price When Reviewed: Free I $29.95/mo I $49.95/yr I $79.95/lifetime

    EaseUs might not have the name recognition of some of the other editors on this list, but it’s more than capable of holding its own in the crowded PDF editor market. It provides all of the essential tools for managing PDF files without any of the elaborate or hard-to-understand features. It allows users to jump right in to their toolset and get straight to editing with only what they need.

    While EaseUS’s features are great, they are also pretty standard fare among PDF editors. What makes it stand out is its affordable price—it’s a great value for those who regularly edit PDFs and don’t want to pay out the nose. EaseUS also offers a fully functional free version (with embedded watermarks on your edited documents) so users can take it for a spin to see if it meets their needs before they commit to paying any money.

    Read their full EaseUS PDF Editor review

    PDF Candy – Best free option

    Pros

  • Many advanced features
  • OCR capability
  • Very easy to use
  • Cons

  • No Mac support
  • Free trial only offers basic features
  • Price When Reviewed: Free

    PDF Candy is the rare free PDF editor that offers a lot of the features you’d typically have to pay for. We’re talking scanning, multiple file-conversion options, and OCR functionality. All of this combines to make PDF Candy stand out among the multitude of lesser free PDF editors. It does have a bit of a wonky interface, but once you get the hang of it you’re off and running.

    Unfortunately, while the free version has access to the expansive toolset of the paid version, you’re limited to one PDF task per hour. If you want unfettered access, you need to shell out $6 per month, or $48 per year.

    Read their full PDF Candy review

    PDF Expert – Best full-featured editor for Apple devices

    Pros

  • Syncs across Mac, iPhone, and iPad
  • Comprehensive editing and annotation tools
  • Simple, intuitive interface
  • Cons

  • Requires annual payment
  • Lifetime license enables use on Mac only
  • Price When Reviewed: Free 7-day trial, then $79.99 annually

    PDF Expert is an excellent editor that fits seamlessly into the Apple ecosystem, making it their pick for Macs, iPads, and iPhone users.

    While macOS does include a PDF editor in its Preview app, iOS devices don’t have a native PDF editor and PDF Expert fills that gap nicely. It has a clean and intuitive interface and offers a plethora of easy-to-use editing options such as page management, converting scanned files into editable documents, and conversion to other file formats, among other things. The pricing plan is also considerably cheaper than most of the other top picks, meaning this is a no-brainer for Apple users.

    Read their full PDF Expert (iOS) review

    Apple Preview PDF editor – Best free option for Mac users

    Pros

  • Full set of PDF markup tools
  • Supports form filling
  • PDFs can be protected with passwords, encryption, and permission controls
  • Cons

  • Limited native sharing options
  • Only available to Mac users
  • Price When Reviewed: Built into macOS

    Mac users needn’t look beyond the macOS for their PDF editing needs, since there is a full set of PDF markup tools already available at their disposal in Apple Preview. It has the chops to handle most personal and business PDF editing needs, including encryption, password protection, and permissions for files.

    Apple Preview’s PDF features and capabilities are impressive and should be all you need for most common editing tasks. The drawback, of course, is that only Mac users can take advantage of them.

    Read their full Apple Preview PDF editor review

    pdfFiller – Best web-based editor

    Pros

  • Intuitive web-based interface
  • Robust security options
  • Lots of business-ready capabilities
  • Cons

  • Business features won’t be needed by some users
  • Requires annual commitment to get best value
  • Price When Reviewed: $8 per month (annual commitment) I $20 per month (cancel at any time)

    pdfFiller is a browser-based PDF editor that allows you do to just about everything PDF-related—editing, securing, sharing, creating, and storing PDF files—all from its intuitive and simple web interface. Its design is similar to a desktop app, with the toolbar across the top, and document thumbnails along the side, so it’s very easy to select the page you want to work on and perform the desired function, be it adding, deleting, or copying/pasting text; changing font style, size, and color; and so on. A standard set of markup tools is also available. It has a surprisingly deep set of features for both personal and business use. For instance the Premium plan offers an impressive legal document library, as well as SignNow support.

    While incredibly versatile, not all of pdfFiller’s advanced features will suit everyone. Fortunately, there are three subscription tiers, which gives users a way to meet their editing needs without paying extra for unnecessary features: Basic for $8/mo; Plus for $12/mo; Premium for $15/mo with an annual commitment. Month-to-month options are also available, but at a higher cost, of course.

    Read their full pdfFiller review A word about online PDF editors

    Why spend a chunk of change on a desktop editor when free online PDF editors abound? The simple answer is because you get what you pay for. Generally, free online editors will let you add text and comments, merge and split documents, and convert files to and from PDF. With rare exception, however, they won’t let you edit existing text and many have file-size and page-volume restrictions. And a lot of them will watermark your edited document. For these reasons, web PDF editors are best reserved for simple, fast editing jobs. Call in these big dogs for anything more demanding.

    What to look for in a PDF editor

    PDF editors come in a variety of flavors, offering varying feature sets—from basic functionality to power-user tools. It’s important to know what features best match your workflow before you commit to a PDF editor.

    Create, convert, and export PDFs

    The most fundamental function of a PDF editor is to make PDFs, either from scratch, scanned hard copies, or by converting digital documents. A good PDF editor should be able to transform a variety of file types—from Microsoft Office formats to images to HTML—and do so seamlessly, preserving the original formatting. It should also include OCR technology to make the PDF text searchable and editable. Likewise, a good PDF editor must be able to export PDFs into other editable formats such as Microsoft Word and PowerPoint, HTML, or plain text, maintaining the original files hyperlinks, images, and other elements.

    Content editing

    Another bit of magic that PDF editors unlock is the ability to modify text; insert, resize, and move images; and reorganize pages in the PDF. A good one will perform these tasks as easily as in a text document or slide deck, allowing in-line editing, dragging-and dropping graphics, and adding or removing hyperlinks.

    Review and annotate

    A good PDF editor should also let you or anyone else using it add comments and other annotations to PDF files during review. It should have tools to mark up both text documents and graphic-heavy files like webpages. Common options include sticky notes, callout boxes, highlighting, freehand drawing tools, and stamps with messages like “approved,” “revised,” and “confidential.”

    Security

    All businesses deal with documents containing sensitive data. Look for a PDF editor that includes security features that allow access for authorized eyes only. Good options will usually offer several levels of security, including password protection, permissions setting, and content redaction, which “blacks out” selected text and images. Most PDF editors will also offer one or more ways to electronically sign documents.

    Mobile support

    While deep PDF editing is best done on a desktop, it’s nice to be able to review and annotate files when you’re out and about. While PDFs can typically be reviewed in any PDF reader or editor, regardless of which one they were created in, consider looking for an editor that has a dedicated mobile app, is optimized for mobile devices, or allows cloud access to features through a mobile browser.

    One of the great things about a PDF is that it can be read and edited in any PDF program regardless of which one it was created in. So beyond the features outlined here, let your personal preferences guide you in making your decision.

    FAQ 1. What is the difference between a PDF document and a PDF form?

    While there are a number of different types of PDF file formats, they all fall under the umbrella term of PDF documents. A PDF form is a type of PDF document that has editable form fields a user can fill out. Typically, parts of the document are static and can’t be changed in a PDF form, such as questions in a survey or instructions about filling out the form. In a PDF form, the content fields a user fills out are open to editing and can offer a list of possible answer options or can be written in freely.

    2. Are PDF documents and Word files different?

    Yes. They are two entirely different document formats. While you can export from one file format to another, they are not the same. Word file formats are usually used for word processing, editing, and making changes to text. PDF documents on the other hand, are most often utilized for viewing, sharing, and printing. Additionally, Word files are read and write and contain some version of the “.doc” file format. Whereas PDF files are typically read-only and contain the “.pdf” file format.

    3. Can you protect PDF documents from being edited by other people?

    Yes. If you have a PDF document that you don’t want anyone else to edit, you can protect the file. You can do this by opening the file in Acrobat, for instance, and clicking Tools > Protect. Then you have a few options as to whether you want to simply restrict editing with a password, or if you want to encrypt the file for further safety. Once you choose how you want to protect the PDF document, you can set a password and save.

    4. Can you merge PDFs with a free PDF editor?

    As a matter of fact, many free PDF editors allow you to merge two or more PDFs into one document. Such is the case with their top free pick PDF Candy. Open up the PDF editor application or website in your browser and search for the Merge option. It will then ask you to add the files of all PDFs you wish to merge. Once the files have been added, arrange the page order and alignment before proceeding with the merge. Afterwards, all of your previously PDF files will be merged into one new PDF document.

    5. Does Google have a free PDF editor?

    Yes and no. Google doesn’t provide a designated free PDF editor itself, but there are third-party Chrome extensions that you can use to help get the job done. Alternatively, you can make use of Google Drive to edit a PDF document. Simply upload the document onto your Google Drive and then select the file and right-click and select Open with > Google Docs. The file will be opened as an editable Google Docs text document. Then just make your edits and when you’re finished click File > download >PDF Document to revert it back to a PDF file.

    This method is a quick and easy way to edit a simple PDF document, but be careful as Google Docs can run into formatting issues if your original document has complex visual formatting such as tables and graphs. In this case, it is best to use a designated free or premium PDF editor.


     


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    Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

    Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

    Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

    Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

    Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

    Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

    Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

    Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

    Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

    Höhere Gewalt

    Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

    Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

    Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

    Technisches Versagen

    Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

    Kriminelle Ursachen

    Hackerangriffe

    Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

    Physischer Angriff

    Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.

    Erpressung

    Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

    Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:

    Cyber-Kosten:

    • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
    • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
    • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
    • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

    Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

    • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
    • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
    • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
    • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
    • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
    • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
    • Rechtsverteidigungskosten

    Cyber-Eigenschäden:

    • Betriebsunterbrechung
    • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
    • Mehrkosten
    • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
    • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
    • Cyber-Erpressung
    • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
    • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
    • Cyber-Betrug