Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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Exam Number : HIO-301
Exam Name : Certified HIPAA Security
Vendor Name : HIPAA
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HIO-301 exam Format | HIO-301 Course Contents | HIO-301 Course Outline | HIO-301 exam Syllabus | HIO-301 exam Objectives

Exam: HIO-301 (Certified HIPAA Security)

Exam Details:
- Number of Questions: The exam consists of multiple-choice questions.
- Time: Candidates are typically given a specified amount of time to complete the exam.

Course Outline:
The Certified HIPAA Security (CHS) course is designed to provide candidates with in-depth knowledge and skills related to the security aspects of the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) regulations. The course outline includes the following topics:

1. Introduction to HIPAA Security
- Overview of HIPAA Security Rule
- Security standards and requirements
- Roles and responsibilities

2. Administrative Safeguards
- Security management process
- Risk analysis and risk management
- Security policies and procedures

3. Physical Safeguards
- Facility access controls
- Workstation and device security
- Disposal of PHI

4. Technical Safeguards
- Access controls and user authentication
- Audit controls and monitoring
- Encryption and data protection

5. Incident Response and Disaster Recovery
- Incident response planning
- Business continuity and disaster recovery planning
- Security incident handling

Exam Objectives:
The HIO-301 exam aims to assess candidates' knowledge and skills in implementing and maintaining HIPAA security measures to protect electronic protected health information (ePHI). The exam objectives include:

1. Understanding the requirements and provisions of the HIPAA Security Rule.
2. Applying administrative safeguards to manage security risks and establish policies and procedures.
3. Implementing physical safeguards to protect facilities and devices that store or transmit ePHI.
4. Utilizing technical safeguards to control access, monitor systems, and protect ePHI.
5. Developing incident response and disaster recovery plans to address security incidents and ensure business continuity.

Exam Syllabus:
The exam syllabus covers the following topics:

- Introduction to HIPAA Security
- Administrative Safeguards
- Physical Safeguards
- Technical Safeguards
- Incident Response and Disaster Recovery

Candidates are expected to have a comprehensive understanding of these courses and demonstrate their ability to apply HIPAA security measures effectively. The exam assesses their knowledge, practical skills, and proficiency in implementing and maintaining HIPAA security compliance.

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OCR Official Speaks About Compliance Concerns for HIPAA Covered Entities and Business Associates

Related Practices & Jurisdictions

Monday, August 21, 2023

What do ransomware, Yelp, and website tracking technologies all have in common? They are troubling areas of concern for HIPAA covered entities and business associates, according to one official from the federal Office for Civil Rights (OCR) which enforces the HIPAA privacy and security rules. Recently, the Executive Editor of Information Security Media Group’s (ISMG’s) HealthcareInfoSecurity.com media site, Marianne Kolbasuk McGee, sat down with Susan Rhodes, the OCR’s acting deputy for strategic planning and regional manager to discuss these issues.

We briefly summarize the discussion below, but you can access the short interview here (~10 min.). It is worth a listen.

Ms. Rhodes outlined three troublesome areas that OCR is watching closely:

  • Hacking/ransomware. Obviously, this continues to be a significant problem for the healthcare sector. According to Ms. Rhodes, ransomware attacks are up 278% in the last 5 years. Developing, maintaining, and practicing an incident response plan is one important tool for dealing with these and other attacks.
  • Online reviews. Negative comments made by customers/patients on popular online review services, such as offered by Yelp and Google, can be upsetting for any small business. Practitioners in the health care sector, such as physicians, dentists, etc. have to be particularly careful when responding to patient complaints on such platforms, if they respond at all. Their responses could result in the wrongful disclosure of protected health information of their patients, resulting in significant OCR enforcement actions such as occurred here and here.
  • Website tracking technologies. Calling this a “hot” area and referencing OCR investigations across the country, Ms. Rhodes directed listeners to the OCR guidance on tracking technologies issued in December 2022. Specifically, she reminded HIPAA covered entities of key considerations when using website tracking technologies including, without limitation, the potential need for business associate agreements and patient consent.
  • Ms. McGee also inquired about areas where covered entities and business associates’ HIPAA compliance frequently falls short. Ms. Rhodes mentioned a few:

  • Risk analysis – which is foundational to the policies and procedures adopted by covered entities and business associates.
  • Access controls – in short, making sure employees and other workforce members at the covered entity or business associate only have access to the PHI needed to perform their job.
  • Audit controls – regularly reviewing system activity, log files, etc. to identify irregular activity or potential compromises to PHI.
  • The HIPAA privacy and security rule continue to raise significant compliance challenges for covered entities and business associates. It is important to those that those challenges do not just exist in the physician’s office, but must be managed on line as well, including on organizations’ website.

    Jackson Lewis P.C. © 2023National Law Review, Volume XIII, Number 233

    What Doctors Wish You Knew About HIPAA and Data Security

    “Epic and others like it were not designed for use by clinicians on the front line trying to help patients,” he says. “These systems are giant billing platforms. It’s varying fields of data to be walled off.”

    Sadly, Epic and others like it are all they have when it comes to storing patient data safely, and despite their flaws, these portals are still the safest available option for doctors and patients. Health care facilities are strictly regulated to receive federal government funding, and they must pass safety certifications, including security protections for patient data. They also seek to maintain industry recognition in order to stay credible and competitive. Want to make a hospital exec nervous? Tell them the Joint Commission is coming by for a visit. They need those gold star approval ratings.

    Some patients are under the misconception that these systems are not really that secure. But in the past few years, data breaches have been rare (though they do happen). Hackers frequently target hospitals and health care systems for ransomware attacks, but it doesn’t pay for hackers to demand money when robust backups exist. While the industry has made some progress, the problem of individuals taking personal risks continues.

    A former Department of Homeland Security adviser and a doctor, Chris Pierson is CEO of BlackCloak, a company that specializes in personal digital protection from financial fraud, cybercrime, reputational damage, and identity theft. He believes vigilance is key for doctors and patients alike.

    Protect Your Entire Family

    “I don’t think people realize that once someone is able to get just one piece of information, that can lead to opening others’ private data,” Pierson says. “It’s no longer the original individual on their computer, but additional family members’ identity that can be compromised.”

    He explains that even if one organization keeps your data safe, another associated one may not, and that’s where criminals will strike. 

    “It’s not just medical offices. It’s your pharmacy, labs, insurance company, anyone who keeps personal information. That has real value, and selling it is the priority.”

    Victims of identity theft can be revictimized when personal information gets into multiple hands. A street address and Tested phone number can go far, especially if the phone contains many contacts, who then become vulnerable to attack themselves.

    “If you get Mom’s info, you can get the child’s as well. An ID card, social security, all of it, and then they have the ability to collect false medical claims or just extortion. It’s a two for one.”

    Two-Factor Authentication Is Worth the Effort

    Pierson mentions how critically important it is to use a multistep authentication system. Your level of protection goes up considerably just by using secure passwords and one-time authentication codes.

    Thankfully, setting all this up is easier than it sounds. Apps on your phone or tablet can help. Google Authenticator, when paired with a service that supports authenticator apps, provides a six-digit number that changes every few seconds and can keep people out of your data even if they have your username and password. Other companies ask users to enter an SMS code as the second authentication factor, in addition to a password, although SMS codes are less secure than authenticator apps. Either approach is better than none—unless a hacker is in physical possession of your phone, they are not getting access.

    Social Media and Tracking

    Social media is becoming a popular way for health care providers and entrepreneurs to connect with the public—and often to sell them treatments or advice. These Instagram or TikTok accounts may offer tips from someone in the medical industry, which can appeal to those facing rising health care costs and difficulties accessing care. But an internet doctor’s background or popularity does not ensure that they observe strong privacy guidelines or secure their transactions.

    My Instagram is flooded with offers promising everything from better sleep to improved sexual health. It’s nice to have options, but that help and any information you receive from those accounts or send to them isn’t covered under HIPAA. Any time you pay out of your own pocket for health-related items or services, or on a direct-to-consumer health app, there is no recourse if someone steals your personal information or shares it.

    Along with social media and direct-to-consumer health options comes large-scale data tracking. Outside of official medical practices, you should view surveillance as an expectation, rather than an exception.

    Ask Questions

    When you sign up for any service, whether through a new doctor’s patient portal or an online supplement shop, ask how your data is stored and where it goes. Read the privacy policies and settings, even briefly, to find out what options you have to restrict the sale or reuse of your data. Check the default settings to make sure you’re not giving away too much information. Find out if the service or platform offers two-factor authentication and set that up if it’s available. Know that it’s rare for anyone to need your social security number, no matter what a customer service agent says. A birth date and address is usually enough.

    Pierson and others agree that they all need to consider security from several angles and do their best to protect ourselves and their loved ones. “The sophistication of identity attacks will always evolve and change. Remember, they only have to get it right once, but they have to guess right all of the time.”

    What is HIPAA?

    What is HIPAA?

    HIPAA stands for the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act

    HIPAA is a federal law covering healthcare and health insurance industries. It addresses a number of courses and mandates that PHI (also referred to ePHI if it is in electronic form) must be protected in order to maintain the privacy and confidentiality of patients’ medical information. This mandate is addressed in two key HIPAA provisions: the Privacy Rule and the Security Rule.


    PHI is individually identifiable health information, including demographic information, that is:

  • Created, received, transmitted, or maintained by a healthcare provider, health plan, or healthcare clearinghouse
  • Relates to the past, present, or future physical or mental health or condition of an individual
  • Relates to the provision of health care to an individual
  • Relates to the past, present, or future payment for the provision of healthcare to the individual
  • Can be used to identify the individual.
  • HIPAA mandates that PHI must be protected in both physical and digital form. Such information is classified as Restricted/PHI by UAB’s Data Classification Rule. Examples of HIPAA/PHI data that must be protected include names, address, dates, phone numbers, email addresses, SSNs, account numbers, photos, etc.

    PHI can appear in a number of different formats. Examples of media on which PHI can appear include, but are not limited to, the following:

  • Written documentation and all paper records, including prescription labels and ID bracelets
  • Spoken and verbal information, including discussions with or about patients, and voice mail messages
  • Electronic information stored on a computer, laptop, mobile device, USB drive, or other electronic media
  • X-rays, photographs, and digital images
  • Requirements Privacy Rule

    The HIPAA Privacy Rule states that PHI may be used and disclosed to facilitate treatment, payment, and healthcare operations (TPO). When HIPAA permits the use or disclosure of PHI, the covered entity must use or disclose only the minimum necessary PHI required to accomplish the business purpose of the use or disclosure. Even when PHI is used or disclosed for appropriate business purposes, if the PHI is not limited to the necessary minimum, it is a HIPAA violation. The only exceptions to the necessary minimum standard are those times when a covered entity is disclosing PHI for the following reasons:

  • Treatment
  • Purposes for which a patient authorization is signed
  • Disclosures required by law
  • Sharing information to the patient about himself/herself
  • Security Rule

    The Security Rule and its associated regulations contain 18 standards that must be met in order to provide the appropriate security safeguards to protect the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of patients’ PHI. These regulations address a number of issues regarding the protection of PHI. Examples of such issues include, but are not limited to, prohibiting downloading or copying of PHI, conducting risk exams at least every two years, requiring the encryption of all hard drives containing PHI, etc.

    To ensure that the requirements of the Security Rule are met, UAB has adopted a set of Security Core Policies and the Data Protection Rule which describes security requirements that must be followed.

    PHI and Third Parties

    A covered entity can share PHI with a third party, but that party must be an authorized Business Associate (BA) and there are requirements and stipulations on how PHI can be shared. Examples of BAs include an electronic patient record vendor or a company that shreds physical media that contain PHI.

    In order to share PHI with a BA, a UAB covered entity must execute a signed Business Associate Agreement (BAA) with the third party before the PHI can be shared.

    For more on HIPAA, BAs and BAAs, and the associated forms, visit UAB’s HIPAA web site. Note: Users must be on either the UAB or UABMC network to access this site.


    The Department of Health and Human Services (HHS enforces a tiered civil penalty system for non-compliance with the HIPAA Privacy Rule and Security regulations. The following actions could occur should a non-compliance issue arise:

  • Monetary penalties that range from $100 to $1.65 million per violation could be assessed, depending on the circumstances.
  • HHS must investigate any complaint that could possibly result from a violation due to willful neglect and must impose penalties if such neglect is confirmed. “Willful neglect” is defined as “conscious, intentional failure or reckless indifference to the obligation to comply” with HIPAA.
  • State attorneys general also can pursue civil suits against persons who violate HIPAA.
  • The U.S. Department of Justice is responsible for enforcing criminal penalties for non-compliance with the HIPAA Privacy Rule. Criminal penalties for “wrongful disclosure” include both large fines of $50,000 to $250,000 and up to 10 years in prison. Examples of wrongful disclosures include accessing health information under false pretenses, releasing patient information with harmful intent, or selling PHI.

    Note: Penalties and fines apply to members of the workforce and other individuals, not just to the covered entities.

    In addition to the federal and state penalties and fines, members of the UAB/UABHS workforce are subject to disciplinary action, up to and including termination of employment or assignment, for non-compliance with HIPAA privacy and security regulations, policies, and procedures.

    Core Policies

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    Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

    Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

    Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

    Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

    Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

    Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

    Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

    Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

    Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

    Höhere Gewalt

    Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

    Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

    Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

    Technisches Versagen

    Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

    Kriminelle Ursachen


    Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

    Physischer Angriff

    Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.


    Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

    Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:


    • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
    • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
    • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
    • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

    Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

    • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
    • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
    • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
    • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
    • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
    • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
    • Rechtsverteidigungskosten


    • Betriebsunterbrechung
    • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
    • Mehrkosten
    • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
    • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
    • Cyber-Erpressung
    • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
    • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
    • Cyber-Betrug