Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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Exam Number : HPE6-A84
Exam Name : Aruba Certified Network Security Expert Written
Vendor Name : HP
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HP Expert exam syllabus

 

HP TET November 2022 exam schedule released at hpbose.org

The Himachal Pradesh Board of School Education (HPBoSE) has released the exam schedule for the HP Teacher Eligibility Test November 2022. As per the notification, the exam is scheduled to be conducted from December 10 to 25, 2022, in two shifts — 10.00 AM to 12.30 PM and 2.00 PM to 4.30 PM.

The exam will be conducted for J.B.T. TET, Shastri TET, TGT (Arts) TET, TGT (Medical) TET, TGT(Non-Medical) TET, Language Teacher TET, Punjabi TET, and Urdu TET. Candidates can download the exam schedule from the official website hpbose.org.

Direct link to the exam schedule.

Meanwhile, the application process for HP TET is underway at hpbose.org till November 22, 2022. The last date to apply for the examination with a late fee of Rs 300 is November 25, 2022. No Application will be entertained thereafter.

“Candidate is allowed to submit only one Application Form against same subject. Multiple Applications of a candidate for same subject are liable to be rejected,” reads the notification.

Exam Fee

The applicants from General and its sub-category (except PHH) are required to pay the Fee of Rs 800, whereas Rs 500 is applicable to candidates from OBC/ST/SC/Physical Handicapped (PHH) categories.

Steps to apply for HP TET November 2022
  • Visit the official website hpbose.org
  • On the homepage, click on “TET (Nov-2022)”
  • Register and proceed with application process
  • Fill up the form, upload the documents, and pay the fee
  • Submit the form
  • Take a printout for future reference
  • Direct link to apply for HP TET November 2022.

    For more details, candidates are advised to visit the official website here.


    IDBI Executive Syllabus: PDF Download, Subject Wise Topics, exam Pattern

    IDBI Executive Syllabus: The Industrial Development Bank of India (IDBI) has released the IDBI syllabus for an executive post on the official website. All interested and eligible aspirants must follow the latest IDBI Executive syllabus and exam pattern and align their strategy accordingly.

    Along with the IDBI Executive exam syllabus, aspirants should check the IDBI Executive exam pattern to understand exam requirements, the number of questions, maximum marks, and the marking scheme prescribed by the authority. Going by previous analysis, it was found that the questions asked in the IDBI Executive exam were moderate in nature. So, aspirants should keep the latest IDBI Executive syllabus handy before commencing their preparation.

    In this blog, the IDBI Executive Syllabus PDF is compiled, including the latest exam pattern, preparation strategy, and best books.

    IDBI Executive Syllabus 2023

    Here are the key highlights of the IDBI Executive syllabus and exam pattern shared below for the convenience of aspirants.

    IDBI Executive Syllabus

    Exam Conducting Body

    Industrial Development Bank of India (IDBI)

    Post Name

    Executive

    Vacancies

    1300

    Category

    IDBI Executive syllabus and exam pattern

    Selection Process

    Online Test (OT), Document Verification (DV), and Pre Recruitment Medical Test (PRMT)

    Maximum Marks

    200

    Duration

    2 hours

    IDBI Executive Syllabus PDF

    Aspirants must download the IDBI Executive Syllabus PDF from the link shared below to understand the Topics that must be studied during exam preparation. Get the direct link to download the IDBI Executive Syllabus below:

    IDBI Executive Syllabus: Important Topics

    The IDBI Executive syllabus is divided into four subjects: i.e., logical reasoning, data analysis and interpretation, English language, quantitative aptitude, and general/economy/Banking awareness/computer/IT. Check the subject-wise IDBI Executive syllabus PDF elaborated below.

    Subject

    Syllabus

    Reasoning Ability

    Verbal Reasoning 

    Classification

    Sequential Output Training

    Directions

    Operations of Mathematics

    Venn Diagram

    Word Sequence

    Missing Characters

    Blood Relations

    Coding-Decoding

    Analogy

    Test on Alphabets

    Data Sufficiency

    Alpha-Numeric Sequence Puzzle

    Puzzle Test

    Direction Sense Test

    Assertion and Reasoning

    Arithmetical Reasoning

    Series Completion

    Verification of truth of Statement

    Situation Reaction Test

    Non-Verbal Reasoning 

    Construction of Squares and Triangles

    Series

    Completion of Sentences

    Classification

    Rule Detection

    Analytical Reasoning

    Spotting embedded figures

    Mirror Images

    Dot Situation

    Identical Figure Groupings

    Paper Folding

    Paper Cutting

    Cubes and Dices

    Water Images

    Forming figures and analysis

    Figure matrix

    English Language

    Cloze test

    Error Spotting

    Sentence Improvement

    Sentence Correction

    Ace studying Comprehension

    Fill in the blanks

    Para jumble

    Para/Sentence Completion

    General Awareness/Banking Awareness

    Current Affairs

    Currencies

    Important Places

    Books and Authors

    Banking Awareness

    GK Updates

    Prime Minister Schemes

    Awards

    Headquarters

    Important Days

    Quantitative Aptitude

    Number series

    Data Interpretation

    Mensuration

    Average

    Profit loss and Discount

    Simplification and approximation

    Quadratic Equation

    Speed, Time and Distance

    Probability

    Ratio and Proportion

    Time and Work

    Simple and Compound Interest

    Weightage of IDBI Executive Syllabus

    Candidates must be familiar with the IDBI Executive exam pattern to get an idea of the exam structure and marking scheme prescribed by the officials. The written exam comprises a total of 200 objective-type multiple-choice questions for 200 marks. A negative marking of one-fourth or 0.25 marks, is applicable for each incorrect response.

    Subject

    No. of Questions

    Maximum Marks

    Duration

    Logical Reasoning, Data Analysis and Interpretation

    60

    60

    2 hours

    English Language

    40

    40

    Quantitative Aptitude

    40

    40

    General/Economy/Banking Awareness/ Computer/IT

    60

    60

    Total

    200

    200

    How to Cover the IDBI Executive Syllabus?

    IDBI Executive is one of the most competitive exams in the country. Every year, many candidates apply for this recruitment against limited seats, but only a few are declared qualified in this exam. Hence, candidates must refer to the latest IDBI Executive syllabus to cover all aspects of the exam. Here is the preparation strategy to ace the IDBI Executive Recruitment exam in one attempt.

  • Check the IDBI Executive syllabus to identify the Topics important for the exam and plan the study schedule accordingly.
  • Pick expert-recommended books and online resources to clarify the basic concepts of all the Topics specified by the officials.
  • Attempt mock tests and IDBI Executive's previous year's question papers to evaluate their performance.
  • Revise all the topics, formulas, and short-cut techniques regularly to retain concepts for a definite period.
  • Best Books for IDBI Executive Syllabus

    Candidates should check the top IDBI executive books based on the latest pattern and curriculum. The right books will help them cover all the Topics mentioned syllabus. Some of the highly recommended exam books are given below:

    IDBI Executive Books

    Subject

    Book Name

    English Comprehension

    Objective General English by SP Bakshi

    Quantitative Aptitude

    Quantitative Aptitude for Competitive exam by RS Aggarwal

    General Knowledge

    Lucent’s General Knowledge

    Reasoning

    A Modern Approach to Verbal and Nonverbal Reasoning by RS Aggarwal

    Also Read,

    IDBI Executive Admit Card


     


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    Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

    Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

    Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

    Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

    Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

    Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

    Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

    Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

    Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

    Höhere Gewalt

    Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

    Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

    Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

    Technisches Versagen

    Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

    Kriminelle Ursachen

    Hackerangriffe

    Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

    Physischer Angriff

    Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.

    Erpressung

    Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

    Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:

    Cyber-Kosten:

    • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
    • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
    • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
    • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

    Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

    • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
    • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
    • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
    • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
    • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
    • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
    • Rechtsverteidigungskosten

    Cyber-Eigenschäden:

    • Betriebsunterbrechung
    • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
    • Mehrkosten
    • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
    • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
    • Cyber-Erpressung
    • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
    • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
    • Cyber-Betrug