Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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American-College HS330 : Fundamentals of Estate Planning test ACTUAL EXAM QUESTIONS

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Exam Number : HS330
Exam Name : Fundamentals of Estate Planning test
Vendor Name : American-College
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HS330 test Format | HS330 Course Contents | HS330 Course Outline | HS330 test Syllabus | HS330 test Objectives


Test Detail:
The HS330 Fundamentals of Estate Planning test is administered by the American College. It is designed to assess the knowledge and understanding of individuals in the field of estate planning. Here is a detailed overview of the test, including the number of questions and time, course outline, test objectives, and test syllabus.

Number of Questions and Time:
The HS330 test consists of multiple-choice questions and is divided into two parts: Part A and Part B. The total number of questions and time for each part are as follows:

Part A:
- Number of Questions: Approximately 100 multiple-choice questions
- Time Limit: 2 hours

Part B:
- Number of Questions: Approximately 35 multiple-choice questions
- Time Limit: 1 hour

Course Outline:
The HS330 course covers various subjects related to estate planning. The course outline may include the following areas:

1. Introduction to Estate Planning:
- Basic concepts and principles of estate planning
- Overview of applicable laws and regulations
- Ethical considerations in estate planning

2. Property Ownership and Transfer:
- Types of property ownership
- Estate planning implications of different property types
- Transfer methods and strategies

3. Wills and Trusts:
- Importance and elements of a valid will
- Types of trusts and their uses in estate planning
- Revocable and irrevocable trusts

4. Estate and Gift Taxes:
- Overview of estate and gift tax laws
- Tax planning strategies and exemptions
- Generation-skipping transfer tax

5. Charitable Planning:
- Charitable giving techniques and strategies
- Tax benefits of charitable contributions
- Charitable remainder trusts and charitable lead trusts

6. Business Succession Planning:
- Planning for the transfer of a business to the next generation
- Buy-sell agreements and other business succession strategies
- Valuation of closely-held businesses

Exam Objectives:
The objectives of the HS330 test include:
- Assessing the candidate's knowledge and understanding of estate planning concepts, laws, and strategies.
- Evaluating the ability to apply estate planning principles to different scenarios.
- Demonstrating proficiency in analyzing and solving estate planning problems.

Exam Syllabus:
The HS330 test syllabus covers a wide range of estate planning topics, including but not limited to:
- Basic estate planning concepts and terminology
- Property ownership and transfer methods
- Wills, trusts, and other estate planning documents
- Estate and gift tax laws and strategies
- Charitable planning techniques
- Business succession planning

Note: The specific content and emphasis within each Topic may vary, and it is recommended to consult the official American College materials or authorized study resources for the most accurate and up-to-date syllabus.



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American-College test Free PDF

 

American Yellowwood

Cladrastis kentukea | Family: Fabaceae

Submission: Nathan Stephansky ‘17

Identification:

Leaves – deciduous, alternate, pinnately compound, with alternate leaflets; leaflets are obvate, entire, and yellow-green.

Twigs – stout with naked buds that are completely enclosed within the petiole.

Fruit – a 3-4″ legume, often constricted in the middle.

Bark – smooth, thin, and gray; very similar to American beech.

Natural History:

Yellowwood (Cladrastis kentukea) is a rare, medium sized tree (15-20m) native to the southern Appalachians, Arkansas, and Missouri. Its scientific name is derived from the Greek words klados, meaning “branch” and thraustos, meaning “fragile,” which refers to the brittle wood and branches. Kentukea indicates the tree being “of Kentucky.” It gets its common name from the yellow tint in the heartwood.

Yellowwood leaves and seedsThe only species of Cladrastis in the United States, yellowwood grows throughout the southeastern United States and as far west as northwestern Arkansas and northeastern Oklahoma. It can grow across the continental United States, though it is endemic to the southeast and is most abundant in the Appalachian and Ozark mountain ranges. Yellowwood has been cultivated in the northeast and part of southern Canada, but rarely escapes cultivation. The distribution of yellowwood and its closest relatives in Asia suggests that yellowwood is an ancient tree that was widely distributed before the Ice Age and was able to survive in the Appalachian and Ozark mountain ranges. The tree is mainly found in rich, fairly moist, upland forests, but is often found in the understory of forests and on stream banks. Moderately tolerant of shade, yellowwood grows best with full sun in moist, well-drained, alkaline soil and will tolerate a large range of pH. Yellowwood is long-lived with slow to moderate in growth rate, achieving a height of 8m in 20 years.Native Americans used yellowwood for building and carving. Root bark was used as a dye and the wood for gunstocks by early settlers in the southern Appalachians. Nowadays, the use of yellowwood has shifted focus toward aesthetics due to its showy flowers that hang in clusters. The white flowers appear in summer, have a pleasant fragrance (some say a sweet vanilla-like smell), and are an important source of nectar for honeybees. Although only giving spectacular floral displays every 2-5 years, yellowwood is often planted as an ornamental tree.

References:

Bernheim Arboretum and Research Forest. c2015. Clermont (KY): Bernheim Arboretum   and Research Forest; [accessed 2015 Nov. 5]. http://bernheim.org/explore/arboretum/bernheim-select/yellowwood/

Brockman, C.F. 1986. Trees of North America: A Guide to Field Identification. Revised Edition. Western Pub. Co., Inc. 280pp.

Elias, T.S. 1980. The Complete Trees of North America Field Guide and Natural History. Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., N.Y. 948pp.

Gilman Edward F., Watson Dennis G. 1993. Cladrastis kentukea American Yellowwood. Forest Service Department of Agriculture and Southern Group Of State Foresters. Fact Sheet ST-170.     http://hort.ifas.ufl.edu/database/documents/pdf/tree_fact_sheets/clakena.pdf

Harlow, W.M., Harrar, E.S., Hardin, J.W. and White, F.M. 1991. Textbook of Dendrology. McGraw-Hill Inc., N.Y. 501pp.

Hill Steven R. 7 May 2007. Conservation Assessment for Yellowwood. (Cladrastis kenutkea (Dum.-Cours.) Rudd) https://www.ideals.illinois.edu/bitstream/handle/2142/18118/INHS2007_28.pdf?s equence=2

Petrides, G.A. 1972, A Field Guide to Trees and Shrubs. 2nd edition. Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston. 428pp.

Preston, R.J., Jr. 1989. North American Trees. 4th edition. Iowa State Univ. Press. Ames. 407pp.

Shane, J. 2004. Dendrology Handbook, University of Vermont, Unpublished


Best PDF editors 2024: Their top picks

It’s likely that you regularly come across or work with PDF files—they’re ubiquitous in their modern cross-platform world. Most of the time, when viewing a PDF, you can enjoy free software that allows you to read or comment on these files. But what if you need to edit them as well? That’s where a PDF editor comes in.

The best PDF editors allows you to edit, create, alter, and convert PDF files just like you would with any other text document. Adobe Acrobat is the most famous option for most people. But while it’s excellent both in features and utility, it’s also pretty expensive. Thankfully, in recent years a whole host of third-party PDF editors have sprung up in order to provide less expensive alternatives.

Here at PCWorld we’ve tested many of these top PDF editors and curated a list of the very best. With different use cases in mind, we’ve included picks for the best overall, best budget option, and even a recommendation for the best free PDF editor—because sometimes you just don’t want to pay for the basics. Check out their recommendations below to find the best PDF editor for you.

Update 12/18/2023: To include Foxit PDF Editor 13 as their new choice for best overall PDF editor runner-up. Read more about this excellent alternative to Acrobat in their summary below.

Adobe Acrobat Pro DC – Best overall

Pros

  • Easily navigable tabbed interface
  • Comprehensive PDF editing features
  • Streamlined sharing feature makes it easier to fill documents and get signatures
  • Cons

  • Rich feature set can be overwhelming for new users
  • Price When Reviewed: $19.90/mo I $239.88/yr

    Adobe Acrobat Pro DC remains the industry standard for good reason. Its rich combination of creation, editing, reviewing, and security features are mimicked by the best alternative options, but they feel Acrobat still does it best. Its recent interface redesign makes it much easier to navigate through its robust toolset than the nested menus of yore, and its cloud subscription option puts its advanced features within reach of more individuals and small businesses. (See how it compares to the Adobe Acrobat Standard DC.)

    Though many of its features are available in other, cheaper PDF editors, Acrobat is still the editor against which all others are judged.

    Read their full Adobe Acrobat Pro DC review

    Foxit PDF Editor 13 – Best overall runner-up

    Pros

  • Multi-platform
  • Business-ready capabilities
  • AI integration helps with document editing
  • Cons

  • Can be expensive depending on product license
  • Price When Reviewed: $179.99 (Standard version, perpetual license)

    Foxit PDF Editor 13 hits all the right notes for a premium PDF editor and can even take on the formidable Adobe Acrobat. It’s packed with features that are sure to please power users—all the requisite content editing tools; review and markup features; form fill and signing support; and robust security options for sensitive documents, such as permissions, password protection, and data redaction. It supports tons of file formats, and adding hyperlinks, images, and files to a PDF is trouble-free.

    Indeed, ease-of-use is one of Foxit’s great strengths. The program uses a Microsoft Office-style ribbon interface which groups tasks in a familiar and intuitive interface, making for a seamless integration with your workflow. It also provides ChatGPT integration so you can easily get help with your documents from an AI assistant. Yes, it’s priced on the higher side for a PDF editor, but with all it has going for it, Nitro PDF Pro more than earns its keep. Plus, you can try it out for free for seven days to see if you like it before making a commitment. If you’re looking for an Acrobat replacement, you won’t find many better.

    Read their full Foxit PDF Editor review

    EaseUS PDF editor – Best budget option

    Pros

  • Full set of editing tools
  • Annotation options enable easy collaboration
  • Straightforward interface
  • Cons

  • Windows only
  • Needs subscription to remove usage limits
  • Price When Reviewed: Free I $29.95/mo I $49.95/yr I $79.95/lifetime

    EaseUs might not have the name recognition of some of the other editors on this list, but it’s more than capable of holding its own in the crowded PDF editor market. It provides all of the essential tools for managing PDF files without any of the elaborate or hard-to-understand features. It allows users to jump right in to their toolset and get straight to editing with only what they need.

    While EaseUS’s features are great, they are also pretty standard fare among PDF editors. What makes it stand out is its affordable price—it’s a great value for those who regularly edit PDFs and don’t want to pay out the nose. EaseUS also offers a fully functional free version (with embedded watermarks on your edited documents) so users can take it for a spin to see if it meets their needs before they commit to paying any money.

    Read their full EaseUS PDF Editor review

    PDF Candy – Best free option

    Pros

  • Many advanced features
  • OCR capability
  • Very easy to use
  • Cons

  • No Mac support
  • Free trial only offers basic features
  • Price When Reviewed: Free

    PDF Candy is the rare free PDF editor that offers a lot of the features you’d typically have to pay for. We’re talking scanning, multiple file-conversion options, and OCR functionality. All of this combines to make PDF Candy stand out among the multitude of lesser free PDF editors. It does have a bit of a wonky interface, but once you get the hang of it you’re off and running.

    Unfortunately, while the free version has access to the expansive toolset of the paid version, you’re limited to one PDF task per hour. If you want unfettered access, you need to shell out $6 per month, or $48 per year.

    Read their full PDF Candy review

    PDF Expert – Best full-featured editor for Apple devices

    Pros

  • Syncs across Mac, iPhone, and iPad
  • Comprehensive editing and annotation tools
  • Simple, intuitive interface
  • Cons

  • Requires annual payment
  • Lifetime license enables use on Mac only
  • Price When Reviewed: Free 7-day trial, then $79.99 annually

    PDF Expert is an excellent editor that fits seamlessly into the Apple ecosystem, making it their pick for Macs, iPads, and iPhone users.

    While macOS does include a PDF editor in its Preview app, iOS devices don’t have a native PDF editor and PDF Expert fills that gap nicely. It has a clean and intuitive interface and offers a plethora of easy-to-use editing options such as page management, converting scanned files into editable documents, and conversion to other file formats, among other things. The pricing plan is also considerably cheaper than most of the other top picks, meaning this is a no-brainer for Apple users.

    Read their full PDF Expert (iOS) review

    Apple Preview PDF editor – Best free option for Mac users

    Pros

  • Full set of PDF markup tools
  • Supports form filling
  • PDFs can be protected with passwords, encryption, and permission controls
  • Cons

  • Limited native sharing options
  • Only available to Mac users
  • Price When Reviewed: Built into macOS

    Mac users needn’t look beyond the macOS for their PDF editing needs, since there is a full set of PDF markup tools already available at their disposal in Apple Preview. It has the chops to handle most personal and business PDF editing needs, including encryption, password protection, and permissions for files.

    Apple Preview’s PDF features and capabilities are impressive and should be all you need for most common editing tasks. The drawback, of course, is that only Mac users can take advantage of them.

    Read their full Apple Preview PDF editor review

    pdfFiller – Best web-based editor

    Pros

  • Intuitive web-based interface
  • Robust security options
  • Lots of business-ready capabilities
  • Cons

  • Business features won’t be needed by some users
  • Requires annual commitment to get best value
  • Price When Reviewed: $8 per month (annual commitment) I $20 per month (cancel at any time)

    pdfFiller is a browser-based PDF editor that allows you do to just about everything PDF-related—editing, securing, sharing, creating, and storing PDF files—all from its intuitive and simple web interface. Its design is similar to a desktop app, with the toolbar across the top, and document thumbnails along the side, so it’s very easy to select the page you want to work on and perform the desired function, be it adding, deleting, or copying/pasting text; changing font style, size, and color; and so on. A standard set of markup tools is also available. It has a surprisingly deep set of features for both personal and business use. For instance the Premium plan offers an impressive legal document library, as well as SignNow support.

    While incredibly versatile, not all of pdfFiller’s advanced features will suit everyone. Fortunately, there are three subscription tiers, which gives users a way to meet their editing needs without paying extra for unnecessary features: Basic for $8/mo; Plus for $12/mo; Premium for $15/mo with an annual commitment. Month-to-month options are also available, but at a higher cost, of course.

    Read their full pdfFiller review A word about online PDF editors

    Why spend a chunk of change on a desktop editor when free online PDF editors abound? The simple answer is because you get what you pay for. Generally, free online editors will let you add text and comments, merge and split documents, and convert files to and from PDF. With rare exception, however, they won’t let you edit existing text and many have file-size and page-volume restrictions. And a lot of them will watermark your edited document. For these reasons, web PDF editors are best reserved for simple, fast editing jobs. Call in these big dogs for anything more demanding.

    What to look for in a PDF editor

    PDF editors come in a variety of flavors, offering varying feature sets—from basic functionality to power-user tools. It’s important to know what features best match your workflow before you commit to a PDF editor.

    Create, convert, and export PDFs

    The most fundamental function of a PDF editor is to make PDFs, either from scratch, scanned hard copies, or by converting digital documents. A good PDF editor should be able to transform a variety of file types—from Microsoft Office formats to images to HTML—and do so seamlessly, preserving the original formatting. It should also include OCR technology to make the PDF text searchable and editable. Likewise, a good PDF editor must be able to export PDFs into other editable formats such as Microsoft Word and PowerPoint, HTML, or plain text, maintaining the original files hyperlinks, images, and other elements.

    Content editing

    Another bit of magic that PDF editors unlock is the ability to modify text; insert, resize, and move images; and reorganize pages in the PDF. A good one will perform these tasks as easily as in a text document or slide deck, allowing in-line editing, dragging-and dropping graphics, and adding or removing hyperlinks.

    Review and annotate

    A good PDF editor should also let you or anyone else using it add comments and other annotations to PDF files during review. It should have tools to mark up both text documents and graphic-heavy files like webpages. Common options include sticky notes, callout boxes, highlighting, freehand drawing tools, and stamps with messages like “approved,” “revised,” and “confidential.”

    Security

    All businesses deal with documents containing sensitive data. Look for a PDF editor that includes security features that allow access for authorized eyes only. Good options will usually offer several levels of security, including password protection, permissions setting, and content redaction, which “blacks out” selected text and images. Most PDF editors will also offer one or more ways to electronically sign documents.

    Mobile support

    While deep PDF editing is best done on a desktop, it’s nice to be able to review and annotate files when you’re out and about. While PDFs can typically be reviewed in any PDF reader or editor, regardless of which one they were created in, consider looking for an editor that has a dedicated mobile app, is optimized for mobile devices, or allows cloud access to features through a mobile browser.

    One of the great things about a PDF is that it can be read and edited in any PDF program regardless of which one it was created in. So beyond the features outlined here, let your personal preferences guide you in making your decision.

    FAQ 1. What is the difference between a PDF document and a PDF form?

    While there are a number of different types of PDF file formats, they all fall under the umbrella term of PDF documents. A PDF form is a type of PDF document that has editable form fields a user can fill out. Typically, parts of the document are static and can’t be changed in a PDF form, such as questions in a survey or instructions about filling out the form. In a PDF form, the content fields a user fills out are open to editing and can offer a list of possible answer options or can be written in freely.

    2. Are PDF documents and Word files different?

    Yes. They are two entirely different document formats. While you can export from one file format to another, they are not the same. Word file formats are usually used for word processing, editing, and making changes to text. PDF documents on the other hand, are most often utilized for viewing, sharing, and printing. Additionally, Word files are read and write and contain some version of the “.doc” file format. Whereas PDF files are typically read-only and contain the “.pdf” file format.

    3. Can you protect PDF documents from being edited by other people?

    Yes. If you have a PDF document that you don’t want anyone else to edit, you can protect the file. You can do this by opening the file in Acrobat, for instance, and clicking Tools > Protect. Then you have a few options as to whether you want to simply restrict editing with a password, or if you want to encrypt the file for further safety. Once you choose how you want to protect the PDF document, you can set a password and save.

    4. Can you merge PDFs with a free PDF editor?

    As a matter of fact, many free PDF editors allow you to merge two or more PDFs into one document. Such is the case with their top free pick PDF Candy. Open up the PDF editor application or website in your browser and search for the Merge option. It will then ask you to add the files of all PDFs you wish to merge. Once the files have been added, arrange the page order and alignment before proceeding with the merge. Afterwards, all of your previously PDF files will be merged into one new PDF document.

    5. Does Google have a free PDF editor?

    Yes and no. Google doesn’t provide a designated free PDF editor itself, but there are third-party Chrome extensions that you can use to help get the job done. Alternatively, you can make use of Google Drive to edit a PDF document. Simply upload the document onto your Google Drive and then select the file and right-click and select Open with > Google Docs. The file will be opened as an editable Google Docs text document. Then just make your edits and when you’re finished click File > download >PDF Document to revert it back to a PDF file.

    This method is a quick and easy way to edit a simple PDF document, but be careful as Google Docs can run into formatting issues if your original document has complex visual formatting such as tables and graphs. In this case, it is best to use a designated free or premium PDF editor.


    American Students Outperformed Much of the World During the Pandemic

    This data comes from the Program for International Student Assessment, coordinated by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development in almost 80 countries typically every three years — a long-running, unimpeachable, nearly global standardized test measure of student achievement among the world’s 15-year-olds in math, memorizing and science.

    And what it shows is quite eye-opening. American students improved their standing among their international peers in all three areas during the pandemic, the data says. Some countries did better than the United States, and the American results do show some areas of concern. But U.S. school policies do not seem to have pushed American kids into their own academic black hole. In fact, Americans did better in relation to their peers in the aftermath of school closures than they did before the pandemic.

    The performance looks even stronger once you get into the weeds a bit. In reading, the average U.S. score dropped just one point from 505 in 2018 to just 504 in 2022. Across the rest of the O.E.C.D., the average loss was 11 times as large. In Germany, which looked early in the pandemic to have mounted an enviable good-government response, the average memorizing score fell 18 points; in Britain, the country most often compared with the United States, it fell 10 points. In Iceland, which had, by many metrics, the best pandemic performance in Europe, it fell 38 points. In Sweden, the darling of mitigation skeptics, it fell 19 points.

    In science, the United States lost three points, about the same decline as the O.E.C.D. average and still above the level Americans reached in 2016 and 2013. On the same test, German students lost 11 points, and British and Swedish students dropped five; performance by students in Iceland fell by 28 points.

    In math, the United States had a more significant and worrying drop: 13 points. But across the other nations of the O.E.C.D., the average decline from 2018 to 2022 was still larger: 16 points. And in historical context, even the 13-point American drop is not that remarkable — just two points larger than the drop the country experienced between the 2012 and 2015 math tests, suggesting that longer-term trajectories in math may be more concerning than the short-term pandemic setback. Break the scores out to see the trajectories for higher-performing and lower-performing subgroups, and you can hardly see the impact of the pandemic at all.


     




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    Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

    Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

    Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

    Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

    Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

    Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

    Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

    Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

    Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

    Höhere Gewalt

    Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

    Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

    Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

    Technisches Versagen

    Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

    Kriminelle Ursachen

    Hackerangriffe

    Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

    Physischer Angriff

    Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.

    Erpressung

    Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

    Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:

    Cyber-Kosten:

    • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
    • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
    • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
    • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

    Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

    • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
    • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
    • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
    • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
    • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
    • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
    • Rechtsverteidigungskosten

    Cyber-Eigenschäden:

    • Betriebsunterbrechung
    • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
    • Mehrkosten
    • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
    • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
    • Cyber-Erpressung
    • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
    • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
    • Cyber-Betrug