Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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XML-Master I10-003 : XML Master Professional Database Administrator ACTUAL EXAM QUESTIONS

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Exam Number : I10-003
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I10-003 test Format | I10-003 Course Contents | I10-003 Course Outline | I10-003 test Syllabus | I10-003 test Objectives

Exam: I10-003 XML Master Professional Database Administrator

Exam Details:
- Number of Questions: The exact number of questions may vary, but the test typically consists of multiple-choice questions.
- Time: Candidates are usually given a specific time duration to complete the exam.

Course Outline:
The I10-003 XML Master Professional Database Administrator certification course is designed to validate candidates' knowledge and skills in managing XML databases and related technologies. The course outline includes the following topics:

1. XML Database Fundamentals
- Introduction to XML databases and their advantages
- Understanding database models (relational, hierarchical, object-oriented)
- XML storage and indexing techniques

2. XML Database Design and Administration
- Database design principles for XML data
- Defining XML schemas and DTDs for database structures
- Indexing and querying XML data

3. XML Database Integration
- Integration of XML databases with other data sources (relational, object-oriented)
- Data transformation and mapping between XML and other formats (e.g., JSON, CSV)
- Web services integration and data exchange

4. XML Database Security and Performance Optimization
- Securing XML databases and access control mechanisms
- Performance tuning and optimization techniques for XML data retrieval and storage
- Backup and recovery strategies for XML databases

5. Advanced XML Database Concepts
- Advanced querying techniques (e.g., XQuery, XPath)
- XML database scalability and replication
- XML database administration best practices

Exam Objectives:
The I10-003 test aims to assess candidates' understanding of XML databases and their ability to manage and administer XML data effectively. The test objectives include:

1. Demonstrating knowledge of XML database concepts and architectures.
2. Designing and administering XML databases, including schema definition and indexing.
3. Integrating XML databases with other data sources and technologies.
4. Ensuring XML database security and implementing access control measures.
5. Optimizing XML database performance and implementing backup and recovery strategies.
6. Understanding advanced querying techniques and scalability options for XML databases.
7. Demonstrating proficiency in XML database administration best practices.

Exam Syllabus:
The test syllabus covers the following topics:

- XML Database Fundamentals
- XML Database Design and Administration
- XML Database Integration
- XML Database Security and Performance Optimization
- Advanced XML Database Concepts

Candidates are expected to have a solid understanding of these subjects and demonstrate their ability to apply XML database principles and techniques in practical scenarios. The test assesses their knowledge, problem-solving skills, and ability to effectively manage XML data and databases.

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Tech Sets Sights on the Last Bastion of Privacy — Your Brain

Virtuous and educated people must be able to make their own wise choices about how, why, and when they use what technology.

Imagine that you have a good year at work, and your supervisor schedules a meeting to discuss a raise. Your boss makes the offer and asks you to take a day to think about it. You like the offer, but, after sleeping on it, you think you should try asking for more. When you meet with your boss again, you ask for more, but your boss holds firm.

Why might your boss do this, even if she knows that the company can afford more? Because your boss knew that you liked the initial offer. How did your boss know that? Because you were wearing the company-issued and required earbuds during the remote meeting as you always do at work, and those earbuds are equipped with neurotechnology that tracks your brain activity. Your boss had access to that data and knew that you were excited about the offer and were in a good mood the rest of the day.

This particular story might be fiction, but tracking and recording brain activity using neurotechnology is not — companies, salespeople, museums, police, schools and governments are already monitoring the brain activity of employees at work, customers smelling different perfumes, viewers of artwork, suspects being questioned, students learning, and citizens being shown propaganda. The age of neurotechnology is already here, and Nita Farahany, in her latest book The Battle for Your Brain, presents the story about the employee and the raise to get us thinking about what the very near future could look like.

Our technology, both the devices themselves as well as the apps and websites they use, keep track of what they do, their physical location, what they click on, how long they look at something, and then sell that information to other companies so they can target us with advertisements. This is not news (at least, it shouldn’t be). But what if those companies had access to your thoughts? 

Farahany writes, “It’s not going to happen tomorrow, but they are rapidly heading toward a world of brain transparency, in which scientists, doctors, governments, and companies may peer into their brains and minds at will.” If information about what they do, what they say, and where they go (physically and virtually) is worth so much to companies, imagine how much their brain data is worth, and how far people will go to get it.

Collections of raw brain data already exist, and it is not uncommon for companies to require their employees to wear some kind of tracking technology, all in the name of efficiency and productivity (which are the gods served by businesses in the Technopoly). Farahany writes:

Whether worn on their scalps or wrists, or deeply embedded in their brains, all these devices share one striking commonality. Each records their raw neural activity — which can be saved, aggregated, and mined for much more than what consumers are using it for. The black box of their brains has been opened.

Some of the most vulnerable are the poor who are required to wear this technology in order to keep their job. The choice to look for another job may not be possible for them when they are living paycheck to paycheck or trying to support a family.

The main point of Farahany’s book, though, is not to scare us or warn of the impending Armageddon. Instead, she argues that it is not too late to develop ethical guidelines for the use of neurotechnology and enshrine what she calls the “right to cognitive liberty,” which could be threatened if neurotechnology is allowed to grow unimpeded and is embraced without question as necessity and progress (another precept of the Technopoly: that technological innovation is intrinsically good and the highest form of human achievement). 

Farahany writes, “While transformation has already started, a public dialogue has not yet begun. If they want to balance their cognitive liberty with societal interests, it’s time for everyone to join the conversation.”

The ethics that guide their decisions about this technology won’t develop on their own; they will require work. The technology seems to be developing on its own, and it will require work to slow it down.

But there will never be enough laws or oversight to prevent people from taking advantage of each other. There is no substitute for the prudence and temperance of the individual. Virtuous and educated people must be able to make their own wise choices about how, why, and when they use what technology. No one can be forced to be free, but it is necessary for individuals to be educated about these things and those in positions of power to have conversations and develop guidelines around the use of this technology.

How to set Notepad++ as default editor for .xml files in Windows 11/10

Editing and performing calculations with a large XML can be difficult if you don’t have a specialized XML Editor tool for it. Notepad++ is one of the smartest editors you can use to get the job done. Here’s a simple guide to help you set Notepad++ as default editor for .xml files in Windows 11/10.

In designing web and cross-platform portable applications, XML has an important role to play. You can easily open .xml and other file types in Notepad++ by adding their extensions to the Registered extensions in Notepad++ preferences. Here’s how it’s done!

  • Open Notepad++ with Administrator rights.
  • Go to settings.
  • Choose preferences.
  • Select File association.
  • Move to Customize.
  • Type ‘.xml’ and press the arrow key.
  • Open a .xml file up and choose notepad++ one last time.
  • Close the app and open it again to test.
  • The most straightforward way to set Notepad++ as the default editor for .xml files in Windows 10 is to right-click the file > choose Open With > Select Choose another app and check the Always use the app to open .xml file box next to Notepad ++. However, many users report, this works just once and defaults to IE11 after that.

    Right-click the Notepad++ shortcut icon on your Desktop or PC and choose ‘Run as Administrator’ option.


    When prompted with a message, hit the Yes button.

    Notepad Preferences


    Next, choose the Settings tab from the toolbar and select the Preferences option as shown in the image above.

    Next, under the left navigation pane, scroll down to File Association option.


    Set Notepad++ as default editor for .xml files Windows 11/10

    Then, under Supported extensions box, click the web script entry and choose .xml extension. Press the Arrow key to register your preference.

    Once done, close the window and exit.

    Notepad++ should now open XML files automatically.

    Hope it helps!

    Read next: How to open XML File In Excel, Word, Chrome, Edge.

    Notepad File Association

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    Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

    Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

    Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

    Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

    Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

    Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

    Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

    Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

    Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

    Höhere Gewalt

    Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

    Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

    Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

    Technisches Versagen

    Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

    Kriminelle Ursachen


    Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

    Physischer Angriff

    Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.


    Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

    Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:


    • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
    • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
    • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
    • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

    Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

    • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
    • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
    • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
    • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
    • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
    • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
    • Rechtsverteidigungskosten


    • Betriebsunterbrechung
    • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
    • Mehrkosten
    • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
    • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
    • Cyber-Erpressung
    • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
    • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
    • Cyber-Betrug