Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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IFPUG I40-420 : Certified Function Point Specialist ACTUAL EXAM QUESTIONS

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Exam Number : I40-420
Exam Name : Certified Function Point Specialist
Vendor Name : IFPUG
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I40-420 test Format | I40-420 Course Contents | I40-420 Course Outline | I40-420 test Syllabus | I40-420 test Objectives

Exam: I40-420 Certified Function Point Specialist

Exam Details:
- Number of Questions: The test consists of multiple-choice and scenario-based questions.
- Time: Candidates are typically given a specified amount of time to complete the exam.

Course Outline:
The I40-420 certification focuses on the function point analysis methodology, which is used to measure the size and complexity of software projects. The course provides candidates with knowledge and skills related to function point analysis principles and practices. The course outline includes the following topics:

1. Introduction to Function Point Analysis
- Overview of function point analysis
- Purpose and benefits of function point analysis
- Role of the function point specialist

2. Function Point Counting Practices
- Function point counting rules and guidelines
- Counting software components (e.g., inputs, outputs, inquiries)
- Handling complexities and variations in function point counting

3. Function Point Analysis Techniques
- Estimating effort and cost based on function points
- Using function points for project planning and resource allocation
- Function point analysis in agile and iterative development environments

4. Function Point Analysis Tools
- Overview of function point analysis software tools
- Using automated tools for function point counting and analysis
- Interpreting and presenting function point analysis results

Exam Objectives:
The I40-420 test aims to assess candidates' knowledge and understanding of function point analysis principles and practices. The test objectives include:

1. Understanding the fundamentals of function point analysis and its role in measuring software size and complexity.
2. Applying function point counting rules and guidelines to accurately determine function point counts for software projects.
3. Utilizing function points for effort estimation, project planning, and resource allocation in software development.
4. Demonstrating proficiency in using function point analysis techniques in various development methodologies, including agile and iterative approaches.
5. Familiarity with function point analysis tools and their application for efficient and accurate function point counting and analysis.

Exam Syllabus:
The test syllabus covers the following topics:

- Introduction to Function Point Analysis
- Function Point Counting Practices
- Function Point Analysis Techniques
- Function Point Analysis Tools

Candidates are expected to have a comprehensive understanding of these Topics and demonstrate their ability to apply function point analysis principles in software measurement and estimation. The test assesses their knowledge, critical thinking skills, and ability to apply function point analysis techniques in real-world scenarios.

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IFPUG Specialist study tips


Master of Specialist Teaching – MSpecTchg

Admission to Massey

All students must meet university entrance requirements to be admitted to the University.

Specific requirements

This programme is a selected entry qualification. This means there are a number of extra requirements you must meet.  

To enter the Master of Specialist Teaching you will have:

  • been awarded or qualified for a bachelor’s degree with a minimum B grade average across the highest level courses, (or equivalent) and
  • been awarded or qualified for a relevant professional qualification, and
  • completed at least two years relevant professional experience, or
  • been awarded or qualified for a Postgraduate Diploma in Specialist Teaching (or equivalent) with a minimum B average.
  • Please see individual webpages for specific entry requirements for specialisation in Advisor on Deaf Children.

    You will also provide the following documents as part of the selection process:

  • copies of all official academic transcripts for studies taken at all universities other than Massey University
  • a copy of your current CV (including education and employment for at least the last five years. If you have recently changed jobs to a resource teacher role, please ensure the new role is included as your current employment)
  • verified copy of your current practising certificate issued by the Teaching Council of Aotearoa New Zealand (if a registered teacher with a current full practising certificate)
  • a summary of any short or long-term disability including learning disability or heath issue that may affect your study.
  • If you are not a registered teacher or you are a registered teacher without a current full practising certificate, you will also need to supply:

  • a completed NZ Police Request and Consent form, along with two pieces of Verified identification (one of which must be photographic) from the list of acceptable forms of identification
  • a copy of a police report from every overseas country you have lived in for more 12 months in the last 10 years. Please do not supply originals as these will need to be supplied to the Education Council at a later date.
  • If you have been previously selected for and enrolled in a Specialist Teaching programme at Massey University you will apply online but will not go through the selection process.

    English language requirements

    If your first language is not English or Te Reo Māori and you have not gained a New Zealand university entrance qualification, or an overseas entrance qualification in a country where the main language is English, you will be required to provide evidence of proficiency in English in the form of an academic International English Language Testing System (IELTS) score of 7.0 with no band less than 7.0 (or the equivalent TOEFL score) or other evidence that is acceptable to Academic Board.

    IELTS EXEMPTION: A teacher who has registered with the Teaching Council of Aotearoa New Zealand and holds a current Practising Certificate, will be exempted from meeting this English language requirement. For more information, see: teachingcouncil.nz.

    Closing date for applications

    Applications close on 10 December for study the following year.

    For applicants who have completed a Massey University Postgraduate Diploma in Specialist Teaching, the closing date for Semester Two applications is 10 June.

    Police vetting

    If you do not hold a current New Zealand professional registration you will be required to undergo police vetting prior to gaining entry into the qualification.

    Curriculum vitae

    Your curriculum vitae should include details of your educational and professional qualifications, employment history with dates and descriptions of roles and responsibilities, membership of associations/organisations, and a list of professional publications and research reports.

    Health and disability

    If you have any short or long-term disability including learning disability or heath issue that may affect your study, please upload a summary in your application. If you disclose any disability, health or personal information as part of your application, this will be assessed during the selection process and is confidential to the University staff processing your application.

    Time limits for Honours, Distinction and Merit

    Where your qualification is completed within the stated time limit and to a high standard, you may be able to graduate with Distinction or Merit. 

    Prior learning, credit and exemptions

    For information on prior learning, exemptions and transfer of credit or other questions:

    English language skills

    If you need help with your English language skills before you start university, see their English for Academic Purposes (EAP) courses.

    Maximum time limits for completion

    There are maximum time limits to complete postgraduate qualifications.  If you do not complete within the maximum time, you may be required to re-apply for the qualification if you wish to continue your studies.

    For returning students, there may be changes to the majors and minors available and the courses you need to take. Go to the section called ‘Transitional Provisions’ in the Regulations to find out more.

    In some cases the qualification or specialisation you enrolled in may be no longer be taking new enrolments, so may not appear on these web pages. To find information on the regulations for these qualifications go to the Massey University Calendar.

    Please contact us through the Get advice button on this page if you have any questions.

    Pest specialist gives tips to help East Texans guard homes against cricket invasion

    TYLER, Texas (KLTV) - The crickets in East Texas are making themselves known with their infamous chirps and invasion of indoor spaces in the excessive summer heat.

    This spring created the perfect mating conditions for the insects: moist air and moderate temperatures.

    Like most insects, they find their way into homes and businesses seeking shelter from the brutal temperatures.

    “They need three things: enough of the weather moisture to make them, and then, the right amount of food, and then, a little good place to harbor,” says integrative pest control specialist Janet Hurley.

    They have even found a way to join a church for Sunday services -- and every other day of the week.

    “We do have an exterminator that comes every month, in fact, we’ve even called him back out on occasion, and there’s just crickets,” says Scott Brown, a pastor at First Baptist Church in Bullard. “It’s nobody’s fault, and we’re just having to live with the chirping that comes with that,” he adds.

    Hurley has some helpful tips for how to prevent the crickets from making your home theirs.

    She says, “The biggest preventative measure is, if you don’t want them in a building, make sure your doors seal correctly, and the easiest way to check that is take a credit card, see if you can slip it under the door. If you can slip it under the door, or a pencil tip, or even a hard piece of cardstock or something, chances are a bug can get in.”

    She also recommends positioning outdoor house-lights to face the house, but from a distance, maybe in a yard or near the street, because crickets are attracted to them.

    Luckily, Hurley predicts the crickets will die off in the extreme heat over the next few weeks, but she also warns of their potential return this fall.

    KLTV’s Lauren Tear speaks with Integrative Pest Management Specialist Janet Hurley about the increase in crickets in East Texas.

    Specialist study support

    Find out about the specialist support you might be able to access to help with a disability.

    If you need to access specialist study support, they can advise you. Types of specialist study support can include:

    How to access specialist study support Disabled Students' Allowance funding 

    If you are eligible to apply for a Disabled Students’ Allowance (DSA), this may be able to help fund your specialist study support.

    To check if your DSA can pay for your specialist support, sign up to one of their DSA workshops.

    Speak to their Disability team

    If you cannot access funding from the DSA, or you require support which DSA does not cover (such as an test support worker), speak to their Disability team to discuss your options.

    Booking a room to meet your specialist study support worker

    Use the find a room service to book a room to meet your support worker or diagnostic assessor. It displays a list of teaching spaces by building, and their current booking status over the next 3 hours. 

    Other spaces and facilities across campus are available to help you study, including library study spaces, blended learning spaces, or open access computers.

    Types of specialist study support: Specialist mentors

    Mentors provide confidential practical and emotional support in response to a broad range of wellbeing-related issues. Examples include (but are not limited to) stress, anxiety, depression and low motivation/morale. Mentors offer support by empowering you to develop strategies to manage your wellbeing and meet your academic goals. They can help you with:

  • Time management and workload prioritisation
  • Goal setting and concentration
  • Developing a work-life balance
  • Liaising with university departments
  • Identifying appropriate assistive technology
  • Mentors can only support you during agreed sessions, and they cannot provide counselling or therapy, but they may signpost you to organisations that can.

    Study skills tutor

    This is confidential support with your academic studies. Study skills tutors can support you to develop independent learning, including helping with understanding assignment briefs, developing effective research techniques, structuring academic writing, and preparing for exams. They can help you with:

  • Spelling, punctuation and grammar
  • Developing academic writing
  • Structuring and presenting ideas
  • Research strategies
  • Organisation, motivation and time management
  • Revision tips and memory skills
  • Identifying appropriate assistive technologies
  • A study skills tutor cannot offer subject-specific tuition, assign additional work, or proofread your work, and they can only support you during agreed sessions.

    Exam Support Workers: Readers, Scribes, Prompters

    Exam Support workers are guided by you. You may choose to use their support extensively, or only a little. They cannot make suggestions or proofread your work for you. Your work must still be your own.

    Practical support assistant

    This is manual, practical and mobility support to assist you with manoeuvring between and around key study venues. This may include carrying books or equipment, acting as a sighted guide or providing wheelchair assistance. You might use practical support in the library, in a laboratory or workshop, or on a field trip.

    Library support assistant

    This is assistance in searching library catalogues and electronic resources under your direction. Library Support Assistants can help you to locate, retrieve and carry academic library materials. This support also includes help with scanning and photocopying library resources, and help locating study areas.

    Workshop/laboratory assistant

    This support is to provide you with any support and practical assistance you may need to complete required assignments in your workshops and/or laboratory work.

    Manual notetaking

    Manual notetakers produce a manual, accurate and comprehensive set of notes from your lectures (and on occasion seminars and one-off university sessions). The notes can be provided in a handwritten format or typed and emailed to you in your style and format preference.

    Electronic notetaking

    This is speech-to-text specialist communication support provided by a qualified electronic note-taker. A live, real-time summary of what is being said is typed by the notetaker in your lectures, seminars or one-off university sessions. The notetaker will link these notes to a second screen for you to read them from live. After the session these notes are sent to you in your style and format preference.

    Study assistant

    Study Assistants can fulfil a variety of roles where support is required for consecutive and irregular periods of time. This includes assisting you in finding appropriate solutions for queries and problems to help reduce anxiety levels, manual notetaking, library assistance, practical assistance, as well as orientation support around campus.

    Other specialist support options

    There is other one-to-one funded specialist support available, for example specialist transcription services, and sign language interpreting. Contact us to discuss your needs.


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    Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

    Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

    Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

    Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

    Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

    Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

    Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

    Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

    Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

    Höhere Gewalt

    Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

    Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

    Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

    Technisches Versagen

    Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

    Kriminelle Ursachen


    Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

    Physischer Angriff

    Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.


    Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

    Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:


    • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
    • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
    • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
    • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

    Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

    • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
    • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
    • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
    • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
    • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
    • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
    • Rechtsverteidigungskosten


    • Betriebsunterbrechung
    • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
    • Mehrkosten
    • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
    • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
    • Cyber-Erpressung
    • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
    • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
    • Cyber-Betrug