Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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Exam Number : IAPP-CIPT
Exam Name : Certified Information Privacy Technologist
Vendor Name : IAPP
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IAPP-CIPT test Format | IAPP-CIPT Course Contents | IAPP-CIPT Course Outline | IAPP-CIPT test Syllabus | IAPP-CIPT test Objectives

Understand critical privacy concepts and practices that impact IT

Become familiar with consumer privacy expectations and responsibility

Bake privacy into early stages of IT products and services for cost control, accuracy and speed-to-market

Establish privacy practices for data collection and transfer

Pre-empt privacy issues in the Internet of Things

Factor privacy into data classification and emerging tech such as cloud computing, facial recognition and surveillance

Communicate privacy issues with partners such as management, development, marketing and legal.

CIPT Training Course Outline

MODULE 1: Fundamentals of Information Privacy

Unit 1: Common Principles and Approaches to Privacy

Discussion of the modern history of privacy, an introduction to types of information, an overview of information risk management and a summary of modern privacy principles.

Unit 2: Jurisdiction and Industries

Introduction to the major privacy models employed around the globe and provides an overview of privacy and data protection regulation by jurisdictions and industry sectors.

Unit 3: Information Security: Safeguarding Personal Information

Introductions to information security, including definitions, elements, standards and threats/vulnerabilities, as well as introductions to information security management and governance, including frameworks, controls, cryptography and identity and access management (IAM).

Unit 4: Online Privacy: Using Personal Information on Websites and with Other Internet-related Technologies

Examines the web as a platform, as well as privacy considerations for sensitive online information, including policies and notices, access, security, authentication and data collection.

Examine additional courses include childrens online privacy, email, searches, online marketing and advertising, social media, online assurance, cloud computing and mobile devices.

MODULE 2: Privacy in Technology

Unit 1: Understanding the Need for Privacy in the IT Environment

Explore the impact that regulatory activities, security threats, advances in technology and the increasing proliferation of social networks have on IT departments.

Unit 2: Core Privacy Concepts

Uncover how privacy compliance becomes more attainable through developing information lifecycle plans, data identification and classification systems and data flow diagrams.

Unit 3: Regulations and Standards Impacting Privacy in IT

Understand privacy laws, regulations and standards that can help IT professionals design better privacy programs and systems to handle personal information throughout the data lifecycle.

Unit 4: Privacy in Systems and Applications

Develop an understanding of the risks inherent in the IT environment and how to address them.

Unit 5: Online Privacy Issues

Learn about online threats, threat prevention and the role of IT professionals in ensuring proper handling of user data.

Unit 6: De-identifying and Anonymizing Personally Identifiable Information

Understand the importance of personally identifiable information and methods for ensuring its protection.

Unit 7: Cloud Computing

Evaluates privacy and security concerns associated with cloud services, and standards that exist to advise on their use.

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IAPP Privacy testing


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Study highlights advantages of syphilis self-testing: convenience, privacy, and rapid results

In a recent study published in The Lancet Public Health, researchers performed a meta-analysis on the utility of syphilis self-testing (SST).

Study: The role of syphilis self-testing as an additional syphilis testing approach in key populations: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Image Credit: JarunOntakrai/Shutterstock.com Study: The role of syphilis self-testing as an additional syphilis testing approach in key populations: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Image Credit: JarunOntakrai/Shutterstock.com


Syphilis, a sexually-transmitted Treponema pallidum infection, is a worldwide epidemic that predominantly affects males having sexual intercourse with males (MSM), sex workers, and transgender women.

Access to healthcare facilities is hampered by economic, structural, and social constraints, leading to delayed identification and management of syphilis, continuing spread, and increasing infection-associated morbidity and mortality.

Discrimination, stigma, prior negative healthcare experiences, gender-based abuse, confidentiality concerns, reluctance to reveal sexual behavior, and limited accessibility to health facilities all contribute to sexually transmitted diseases (STD) follow-up losses and low testing rates.

SST has the potential to expand testing and therapy coverage similarly as self-tests for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), and hepatitis C virus (HCV) have been shown to do.

About the study

In the present meta-analysis, researchers reviewed the scientific evidence on SST concerning its usability, accuracy, acceptability, reactivity, uptake, association with confirmatory testing, management, care services for sexual health, adverse events or social harm, cost-effectiveness, and execution factors.

Databases such as Embase, MEDLINE, Scopus, Web of Science, and CINAHL were searched for studies published between January 1, 2000, and October 13, 2022. Original research on rapid tests for syphilis, including dual syphilis-HIV testing, was included.

In addition, four electronic STD or HIV conference databases [conferences of the International acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) Society, United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (US CDC), International Union Against STDs, and Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections] were reviewed.

The World Health Organization (WHO) research group for human immunodeficiency virus self-testing guidelines’ updates provided data on syphilis-HIV dual testing.

Two researchers independently performed data screening and extraction, and discrepancies were resolved by a third researcher. Random-effects modeling was performed to determine the pooled percentage of individuals offered syphilis self-testing kits who underwent testing.

Bias risks were analyzed using Cochrane’s Risk of Bias Tool and the Johanna Briggs’ Institute (JBI) Critical Appraisal Tool for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and non-RCTs, respectively, and certainty of evidence using the GRADE approach. SST includes tests performed by individuals who collect specimens, perform the tests, and interpret the results. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize study characteristics.


In total, 40,499 records were identified, of which 11 were eligible, including seven studies conducted in the United States of America (USA, one study), China (five studies), and Zimbabwe (one study). Among the included studies, two recruited individuals from 2015 to 2017 and nine recruited individuals from 2018 to 2020.

Four studies documented data from MSM individuals, and five utilized dual SST-HIV dual tests. All the included cross-sectional analytical studies had low bias risks. Regarding evidence certainty, the team found very low evidence certainty for adverse events and social harm; low confidence for reactivity, usability, and linkage to treatment and care; and high certainty for uptake.

Using information from three observational-type studies and one RCT, the pooled percentage of individuals who underwent SST testing was 88.0%, with medium-level heterogeneity in the study findings (I² of 46.0%). None of the studies provided information on SST specificity or sensitivity.

Provider and user SST preferences were high, with SST facilitators including privacy, convenience, autonomy, quick results, reduced contact with health facilities, time savings, and trust in hematological testing, with individuals capable of self-testing correctly.

Studies conducted in China reported the highest uptake rates (approximately 90%) and that SST was more cost-effective at an individual level than facility-based tests.

However, there were a few reported challenges, including finger prick requirements for blood trial collection, complicated and lengthy procedures (involving removal of test components from the package, pipetting buffer, and understanding SST instructions), technical problems related to phone use (e.g., SST scanning), and result interpretation difficulties.

SST implementation barriers included lack of knowledge (including SST unawareness and kit and care accessibility locations), trial collection and result interpretation challenges, poor STD awareness, and privacy, cost, and test accuracy concerns.

A study reported that 30 out of 174 males and nine out of 76 female sexual workers were pressured to perform SST due to verbal abuse, relationship termination, violent threats, and psychological pressure.


Overall, the study findings expand on self-testing data for various disease locations and show that SST can reach neglected individuals.

SST implementation proved possible and acceptable; hence, SST may be utilized as a supplementary syphilis testing strategy.

However, since SST specificity and sensitivity data were unavailable, further research is required to develop appropriate strategies and policies for delivering and scaling SST.

How to Test for Lupus

No result found, try new keyword!This article is based on reporting that features expert sources. How to Test for Lupus Lupus is a medical condition with an aura of mystery. Symptoms affect each patient differently and can mimic ...

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Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

Höhere Gewalt

Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

Technisches Versagen

Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

Kriminelle Ursachen


Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

Physischer Angriff

Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.


Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:


  • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
  • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
  • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
  • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

  • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
  • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
  • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
  • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
  • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
  • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
  • Rechtsverteidigungskosten


  • Betriebsunterbrechung
  • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
  • Mehrkosten
  • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
  • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
  • Cyber-Erpressung
  • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
  • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
  • Cyber-Betrug