Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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Exam Number : IBQH001
Exam Name : International Board for Quality in Healthcare
Vendor Name : IBQH
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IBQH001 exam Format | IBQH001 Course Contents | IBQH001 Course Outline | IBQH001 exam Syllabus | IBQH001 exam Objectives

Exam: IBQH001 (International Board for Quality in Healthcare)

Exam Details:
- Number of Questions: The exam consists of multiple-choice questions.
- Time: Candidates are typically given a specified amount of time to complete the exam.

Course Outline:
The IBQH001 certification focuses on quality management in the healthcare industry. The course provides candidates with knowledge and skills related to healthcare quality principles and practices. The course outline includes the following topics:

1. Introduction to Healthcare Quality
- Overview of healthcare quality management
- Importance of quality in healthcare
- Regulatory and accreditation standards

2. Quality Improvement Methodologies
- Six Sigma principles and tools
- Lean management principles
- Plan-Do-Study-Act (PDSA) cycle
- Root cause analysis

3. Performance Measurement and Metrics
- Key performance indicators (KPIs)
- Data collection and analysis
- Dashboard reporting
- Benchmarking and best practices

4. Patient Safety and Risk Management
- Patient safety culture
- Risk exam and mitigation
- Incident reporting and analysis
- Medication safety and error reduction

5. Quality Management Systems
- ISO 9001 for healthcare organizations
- Quality policy and objectives
- Documentation and record management
- Internal audits and management reviews

Exam Objectives:
The IBQH001 exam aims to assess candidates' knowledge and understanding of quality management principles and practices in healthcare. The exam objectives include:

1. Understanding the fundamentals of healthcare quality management and its importance in improving patient outcomes.
2. Applying quality improvement methodologies, such as Six Sigma and Lean, to identify and eliminate waste and inefficiencies in healthcare processes.
3. Utilizing performance measurement tools and metrics to assess and monitor the quality of healthcare services.
4. Implementing patient safety and risk management strategies to minimize adverse events and Boost patient care.
5. Demonstrating knowledge of quality management systems and their application in healthcare organizations.

Exam Syllabus:
The exam syllabus covers the following topics:

- Introduction to Healthcare Quality
- Quality Improvement Methodologies
- Performance Measurement and Metrics
- Patient Safety and Risk Management
- Quality Management Systems

Candidates are expected to have a comprehensive understanding of these subjects and demonstrate their ability to apply quality management principles in the healthcare context. The exam assesses their knowledge, critical thinking skills, and ability to make informed decisions regarding quality improvement initiatives in healthcare settings.

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IBQH Healthcare genuine Questions


Frequently Asked Questions

Frequently Asked Questions about Health Science Why should I major in Health Science?

The Bachelor of Science program in Health Science is a multi-disciplinary undergraduate degree that provides students with a foundation to pursue careers in the Allied Health Professions. The curriculum also provides many (if not all) of the pre-requisites necessary to pursue advanced education to become a nurse, physician assistant, physical therapist, occupational therapist, cardiac rehabilitation specialist, sonographer, health educator, and more.

Earning a BS in Health Science may help students advance their current healthcare careers to the next level, develop professional skills sought by health care employers, and prepare for graduate or professional programs in the Allied Health Professions.

What types of careers do Health Science majors pursue?

Below is a list of common careers that Health Science Majors pursue:

  • Nurse
  • Physician Assistant
  • Physical Therapist
  • Occupational Therapist
  • Cardiovascular technician
  • Anesthesia technician
  • Dental hygienist
  • Occupational therapy assistant
  • Physical therapy assistant
  • Respiratory therapist
  • Surgical technician
  • Registered health information technician
  • Biomedical equipment technician
  • Medical lab technician
  • Cancer registrar
  • EKG technologist
  • Pharmacy technician
  • Paramedic
  • Veterinary technician
  • Radiation therapist
  • Medical assistant
  • What should I do if I’m not sure what career I would like to pursue?

    There are many resources on the Sac State Career Center webpage to help you find a career that is right for you. When you click on the Career Center webpage, you will find two important links. The first link is called “FOCUS 2 Career”, in which you will take a personality exam that identifies careers that appear to match well with your unique characteristics. The second link is “What Can I Do With This Major”, which explores the professions relevant to a large variety of majors on and off campus.

    If I'm a Health Science Major does that mean I will get into Nursing?

    No. If you are a Health Science Major, you will need to complete all pre-requisite requirements to submit a supplemental application to the nursing program. For more information, please visit the School of Nursing webpage.

    What if I want to be a Nursing major, but am currently in Health Science

    At Sac State, all students who are interested in Nursing begin as Health Science majors. The Nursing program requires students to complete specific pre- and co-requisite courses as well as take the TEAS exam before they are eligible to apply for the Nursing program. More information about the Nursing program requirements and how to apply is available on the School of Nursing webpage. You may also visit the following links:

    Where can I get additional questions answered about the Nursing Program?

    Our School of Nursing has a live chat as well as group advising sessions. To access the live chat and gain additional advising information, please visit the School of Nursing webpage.

    Do I have to be a Health Science major to apply to the Nursing program?

    Being a Health Science major is not a pre-requisite to apply to the Nursing program at Sac State. However, the curriculum is designed to provide students with the pre-requisites necessary for the supplemental application.

    What happens if I don’t get accepted into the Nursing program?

    The Nursing program only accepts up to 80 students per semester. If you don’t get accepted, do not be discouraged. You can finish your degree in Health Science (graduate with a BS in Health Science) and explore accelerated bachelor or master’s degree programs in Nursing. While Sac State does not offer a continuous Accelerated Second Bachelor of Science in Nursing or Entry Level Master’s track for post-baccalaureate students, they do offer a Second Bachelor’s degree, even when the University is closed to Second Bachelors (there is an exception for Nursing). If interested, please explore the School of Nursing webpage. For a list of accredited nursing programs, including Accelerated Second BSN or Entry Level Master’s programs offered in California, visit the California Board of Registered Nursing (BRN).

    With a BS in Health Science, you may also be eligible to apply for other types of graduate or professional schools in the Allied Health Professions. Students are encouraged to seek “prospective student” advising with programs and professional schools of interest that are outside of Sacramento State University.

    Where can I go if I need help with major advising or course scheduling?

    The Student Success Center in the College of Health and Human Services offers drop-in advising both online and in-person. The Student Success Center is located in Solano Hall, Room 3000. For hours of operation and links to virtual advising, please visit the HHS Student Success Center webpage.

    How do I schedule an appointment with a Health Science advisor?

    Instructions on how to schedule an appointment with your Health Science Advisor are located on the HHS Student Success Center webpage.

    How do I submit a course substitution?

    It is possible that you’ve taken a course at a community college or different university that you would like to use for your Health Science Major. It is also possible that you’d like to take a course that is not currently listed as a Health Science Elective. To determine whether you are eligible to make a course substitution, please visit with one of their advisors in the HHS Student Success Center. If the course is acceptable, their advisors will help you process the online forms.

    How do I change my major?

    Become a Health Science Major:

    If you want to become a Health Science Major, complete the following steps:

  • Read the Health Science FAQs on this website.
  • Complete the Change of Major Survey
  • Requests will be reviewed on a weekly basis.
  • The major change will be reflected in your Student Center in 7-14 days.
  • You will receive an invitation to the Health Science majors Canvas for additional information and advising support.
  • How do I declare a different major?

    If you want to declare a major other than Health Science, please reach out to that specific department or the Student Success Center that services that major and ask about the procedures for declaring that major. There are 6 other Student Success Centers on the CSUS campus for majors that do not fall under the College of Health and Human Services.

  • Health and Human Services
  • Arts and Letters
  • Business
  • Education
  • Engineering & Computer Science
  • Natural Sciences and Mathematics
  • Social Sciences & Interdisciplinary Studies
  • Does the HLSC program have a minimum grade requirement?

    The Health Science program expects you get a C- or better in your required coursework. However, please note that many graduate and professional programs in the Allied Health Professions require a C or better in all pre-requisite courses.

    Does the BS in Health Science have a foreign language requirement?

    Students graduating with a BS in Health Science will not be subject to the University’s Foreign Language Graduation Requirement. Students who change major may be subject to the University’s Foreign Language Graduation Requirement.

    How do I choose my BIO & CHEM lower-division courses?

    Freshman will be given a schedule that they can edit. For both freshman and transfer students, an advisor will work with you to select your best course options.

    Should I take a BIO and CHEM course during the same semester?

    Biology and Chemistry courses are very challenging courses. It is highly recommended that students take one science course at a time to be as successful as possible in each course.

    There are many courses that you can take at a JC that will transfer to Sac State. However, you should meet with an advisor before taking those courses to ensure that they will fulfill your major or pre-requisite requirements.

    How do I know when I’m eligible to apply for graduation?

    In order to apply for graduation, a student must meet the following criteria and file by the appropriate deadline:

  • You must have 85 units completed at the point of applying for graduation
  • You must have a declared Major on record
  • You must have an assigned Major advisor on record
  • You must be enrolled as an undergraduate student
  • Second bachelor's students must meet with a graduation advisor to obtain a graduation application
  • If you’re ready to apply, please complete the graduation application on the graduate advising webpage.
  • What are the graduation application deadlines?

    Please visit the graduation advising webpage to answer any graduation related questions.

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    Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

    Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

    Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

    Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

    Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

    Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

    Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

    Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

    Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

    Höhere Gewalt

    Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

    Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

    Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

    Technisches Versagen

    Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

    Kriminelle Ursachen


    Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

    Physischer Angriff

    Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.


    Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

    Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:


    • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
    • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
    • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
    • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

    Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

    • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
    • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
    • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
    • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
    • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
    • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
    • Rechtsverteidigungskosten


    • Betriebsunterbrechung
    • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
    • Mehrkosten
    • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
    • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
    • Cyber-Erpressung
    • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
    • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
    • Cyber-Betrug