Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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Study Finds This Common Fruit Can Help Excellerate Brain Function

Strawberries are already known for being one of the healthiest, nutrient-dense fruits, chock full of vitamins, minerals, antioxidants, and fiber. However, according to a new study, strawberry consumption may also be linked with improved brain function and lowered blood pressure.

The study, which was conducted by San Diego State University and funded by the California Strawberry Commission, presented the findings at the American Society of Nutrition's 2023 Nutrition conference last month. The sampling of participants, described as a group of about "35 healthy older adults," consumed 26 grams of a freeze-dried strawberry powder—or the equivalent of about two cups of fresh strawberries—daily for eight weeks.

Researchers primarily measured cognition based on neurological and behavioral function, as well as cardiometabolic health assessed by blood pressure and waist circumference.

What they found was that cognitive processing speed increased moderately among participants who consumed the strawberry powder. Strawberry consumption also reduced systolic blood pressure, reduced waist circumference, and increased total-antioxidant capacity.

"Prior to conducting their clinical study, some of the similar effects were shown in animal studies and some human studies, but different populations and different designs," Dr. Shirin Hooshmand, San Diego State University associate professor and co-author of the study, told Good Housekeeping. "Following strawberry consumption daily for eight weeks, cognitive processing speed increased by 5.2 percent, systolic blood pressure decreased by 3.6 percent, and total antioxidant capacity significantly increased by 10.2 percent."

The new research only reinforces that strawberries are a nutritional powerhouse. At just under 50 calories, one cup of the fruit boasts three grams of fiber and only about 11 grams of carbs.

A one-cup serving of strawberries also pack in 85 milligrams of vitamin C, which meets about 100 percent of the recommended daily intake of 75 milligrams per day for women and 90 per day for men. As an antioxidant, vitamin C helps boost immune function, benefits healthy skin, and can also reduce the risk of several chronic diseases.

And with plenty of ways to incorporate strawberries into food and beverage recipes, there's never been a better time to eat (or drink) up to your health.

Teenage smokers have different brains than non-smoking teens, study suggests

CDC: 1 in 10 young adults are vaping regularly

CDC: 1 in 10 young adults are vaping regularly 02:00

A new study suggests that the brains of teenagers who take up smoking may be different from those of adolescents who don't take up the habit —  data that could help treat and prevent nicotine addiction from an early age. 

A research team led by the universities of Cambridge and Warwick in Britain and Fudan University in China found that teens who started smoking cigarettes by 14 years of age had significantly less grey matter in a section of the brain's left frontal lobe. 

Tuesday's findings, published in the scientific journal Nature Communications, indicate that adolescents with less grey matter on the left frontal lobe have less cognitive function and therefore are more inclined to break rules and develop bad habits such as smoking. 

The left frontal lobe is linked to decision-making and rule-breaking. Grey matter is the brain tissue that processes information, and its growth and development peaks for humans in their teenage years.   

Notably, researchers found that the right part of the same brain region also had less grey matter in teenage smokers. 

The right frontal lobe of the brain is linked to the seeking of sensations and the research team found that the right frontal lobe shrinks for teenagers who smoke regularly -- which may lead to addiction and affect the ways adolescents seek pleasure.

Scientists hope the combined results may help in intervening and preventing teenagers from taking up the bad habit before addiction takes hold. 

"Smoking is perhaps the most common addictive behaviour in the world, and a leading cause of adult mortality," said Cambridge University Professor Trevor Robbins, who co-authored the study. 

"The initiation of a smoking habit is most likely to occur during adolescence. Any way of detecting an increased chance of this, so they can target interventions, could help save millions of lives," Robbins said in a press release on Tuesday. 

Around 1,600 young people try their first cigarette before the age of 18 every day in the United States, and nearly half a million Americans die prematurely each year from smoking or exposure to secondhand smoke, according to the CDC. 

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Vitamin K may help keep lungs healthy, study suggests

People who have low levels of vitamin K are more likely to report having asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and wheezing, a new study found. File Photo by ThiloBecker/Pixabay

It may not get the publicity of some better-known vitamins like D, but vitamin K -- found in leafy green vegetables -- may boost lung health.

A new, large study -- published Thursday in ERJ Open Research -- suggests that people who have low levels of this vitamin also have less healthy lungs. They are more likely to report having asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and wheezing.

"Our results suggest that vitamin K could play a part in keeping their lungs healthy," said researcher Dr. Torkil Jespersen of Copenhagen University Hospital and the University of Copenhagen in Denmark.

"On their own, their findings do not alter current recommendations for vitamin K intake, but they do suggest that they need more research on whether some people, such as those with lung disease, could benefit from vitamin K supplementation," Jespersen said in a journal news release.

In addition to leafy greens, vitamin K is found in vegetable oils and cereal grains. It has a role in blood clotting, helping the body heal wounds, but researchers know very little about its role in lung health.

To study this, the Danish researchers recruited more than 4,000 Copenhagen residents, ages 24 to 77.

Study participants underwent lung function testing, called spirometry, which measures the amount of air a person can breathe out in one second (forced expiratory volume or FEV1) and the total volume of air they can breathe in one forced breath (forced vital capacity or FVC).

Participants also gave blood samples and answered questionnaires on their health and lifestyle. The blood tests included a marker of low levels of vitamin K in the body.

People with markers of low vitamin K levels had lower FEV1 and lower FVC on average. Those with lower levels of vitamin K were also more likely to say they had COPD, asthma or wheezing. The study only found an association between vitamin levels and lung function; it couldn't prove cause and effect.

"This study suggests that people with low levels of vitamin K in their blood may have poorer lung function. Further research will help us understand more about this link and see whether increasing vitamin K can Excellerate lung function or not," said Dr. Apostolos Bossios, from Sweden's Karolinska Institute and secretary of the European Respiratory Society assembly on airway diseases, asthma, COPD, and chronic cough. He was not involved in this research.

"In the meantime, they can all try to eat a healthy, balanced diet to support their overall health, and they can protect their lungs by not smoking, taking part in exercise and doing all they can to cut air pollution," Bossios said in the release.

More information

The U.S. National Institutes of Health has more on vitamin K.

Copyright © 2023 HealthDay. All rights reserved.


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Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

Höhere Gewalt

Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

Technisches Versagen

Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

Kriminelle Ursachen


Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

Physischer Angriff

Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.


Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:


  • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
  • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
  • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
  • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

  • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
  • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
  • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
  • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
  • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
  • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
  • Rechtsverteidigungskosten


  • Betriebsunterbrechung
  • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
  • Mehrkosten
  • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
  • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
  • Cyber-Erpressung
  • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
  • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
  • Cyber-Betrug