Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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Exam Number : IIA-CRMA
Exam Name : Certification in Risk Management Assurance (CRMA)
Vendor Name : IIA
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IIA-CRMA exam Format | IIA-CRMA Course Contents | IIA-CRMA Course Outline | IIA-CRMA exam Syllabus | IIA-CRMA exam Objectives

Title: Certification in Risk Management Assurance (CRMA)

Test Detail:
The Certification in Risk Management Assurance (CRMA) is offered by the Institute of Internal Auditors (IIA). It is a globally recognized certification that validates the knowledge and skills required to assess and manage risks within organizations. The CRMA certification focuses on risk management and assurance, providing professionals with the expertise to navigate complex risk environments effectively.

Course Outline:
The CRMA certification program covers a comprehensive range of courses related to risk management and assurance. The course provides participants with an in-depth understanding of risk exam methodologies, risk management frameworks, and the role of internal auditors in risk management. The following is a general outline of the key areas covered in the certification program:

1. Introduction to Risk Management:
- Understanding the concepts and principles of risk management
- Identifying and categorizing different types of risks
- Roles and responsibilities of risk management professionals
- Integration of risk management into organizational processes
- Regulatory and compliance considerations

2. Risk Assessment and Analysis:
- Conducting risk exams and identifying risk sources
- Risk appetite and tolerance determination
- Risk analysis techniques and tools
- Evaluating the impact and likelihood of risks
- Risk prioritization and mitigation strategies

3. Risk Management Frameworks and Standards:
- Overview of risk management frameworks (e.g., COSO, ISO 31000)
- Application of risk management standards and guidelines
- Implementing a risk management framework within an organization
- Roles and responsibilities of key stakeholders in risk management
- Monitoring and reporting on risk management effectiveness

4. Internal Audit's Role in Risk Management:
- Internal audit's contribution to risk management processes
- Performing risk-based internal audits
- Internal control frameworks and their relationship to risk management
- Leveraging technology for risk management and assurance
- Collaborating with stakeholders to enhance risk management practices

Exam Objectives:
The CRMA certification exam assesses candidates' understanding of risk management principles, processes, and internal audit's role in risk management. The exam objectives include, but are not limited to:

1. Demonstrating knowledge of risk management principles and concepts.
2. Understanding risk exam and analysis techniques.
3. Applying risk management frameworks and standards.
4. Recognizing the role of internal audit in risk management.
5. Implementing effective risk management practices.

The CRMA certification program typically includes self-study materials or training courses provided by the IIA or authorized training providers. The syllabus provides a breakdown of the courses covered throughout the course, including specific learning objectives and milestones. The syllabus may include the following components:

- Introduction to Risk Management
- Risk Assessment and Analysis
- Risk Management Frameworks and Standards
- Internal Audit's Role in Risk Management
- exam Preparation and Practice Tests
- Final Certification in Risk Management Assurance (CRMA) Exam

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IIA Certification course outline


CHEM.2220 Organic Chemistry IIA (Formerly 84.222)

Id: 007656 Credits Min: 3 Credits Max: 3 Description

A continuation of CHEM.2210 including an introduction to infrared and NMR spectroscopy and biochemistry. The application of organic reactions in multi-step synthesis is stressed.


Pre-Reqs: CHEM 2210 Org Chemistry I with grade of D or better; or Spring 2020 grade of "P". Co-Req: CHEM 2280L (Chemistry majors only) or CHEM 2300L Org Chemistry Lab II.

View Current Offerings

CHEM.2280L Organic Chemistry Laboratory IIA (Formerly 84.228)

Id: 007662 Credits Min: 2 Credits Max: 2 Description

A continuation of 84.227 including an introduction to semimicro organic techniques. Planning and successfully carrying out reactions published in the chemical literature are emphasized. Required for chemistry majors.


Pre-reqs: CHEM 2210 Organic Chemistry IA, CHEM 2270L Organic Chemistry Lab II; Co-reqs: CHEM 2220 Organic Chemistry IIA, CHEM 2600 Info Retrieval. For Chemistry Majors Only.

View Current Offerings

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Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

Höhere Gewalt

Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

Technisches Versagen

Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

Kriminelle Ursachen


Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

Physischer Angriff

Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.


Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:


  • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
  • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
  • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
  • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

  • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
  • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
  • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
  • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
  • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
  • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
  • Rechtsverteidigungskosten


  • Betriebsunterbrechung
  • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
  • Mehrkosten
  • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
  • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
  • Cyber-Erpressung
  • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
  • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
  • Cyber-Betrug