Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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Exam Number : ISEB-PM1
Exam Name : Foundation Certificate in Project Management
Vendor Name : ISEB
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ISEB-PM1 test Format | ISEB-PM1 Course Contents | ISEB-PM1 Course Outline | ISEB-PM1 test Syllabus | ISEB-PM1 test Objectives


Exam ID : ISEB-PM1

Exam Title : BCS Foundation Certificate in IS Project Management

Questions : 40

Pass Marks : 26

Duration : 1 hour

Exam Type : multiple-choice



This certificate is appropriate for anyone involved in or affected by IT projects; this extends to users, buyers and directors.
Candidates will be able to demonstrate and execute an understanding of the principles of project management in their organisation, including an understanding of:



Project planning

Monitoring and control

Change control and configuration management

Effort estimation

Quality and risk management

Communication between project stakeholders



Objectives

Candidates who pass the Foundation Certificate should be able to demonstrate an understanding of the principles of project management, including those that relate to project planning, monitoring and control, change control and configuration management, effort estimation, quality and risk management and communication between project stakeholders.



1. Projects and Project Work

 The definition of projects, as opposed to other types of work

 Terms of reference for a project

 The purpose of project planning and control

 The typical activities in a system development life-cycle

 System and project life cycles

 Variations on the conventional project life cycle, such as the use of prototypes or an iterative approach (e.g. the creation and testing of a series of versions of a product that converge on the final deliverable) or incremental approach (i.e. the phased creation and delivery of a series of products to users)

 Implementation strategies e.g. parallel running, ‘sudden death, use of pilots

 Purpose and content of business case reports; the use and significance of discounted cash flows in such reports (Note: knowledge of the method of calculation is NOT required)

 Types of planning document: project initiation documents; project and stage plans, quality plan, communications plan, risk plan

 Post implementation review

2. Project Planning

Note: candidates are expected to have an understanding of both the product and activity based approaches to planning

 Project deliverables and intermediate products

 Work and product breakdowns

 Product definitions (including the identification of derived from, and component of relationships between products)

 Relationship between products and activities in a project

 Check points and milestones

 Lapsed time and effort required for activities

 Activity networks (using ‘activity on node notation)

 Calculation of earliest and latest start and end dates of activities and resulting float

 Identification and significance of critical paths

 Resource allocation, smoothing and levelling, including the use of resource histograms

 Work schedules and Gantt charts

3. Monitoring and Control

 The project control life cycle: including planning, monitoring achievement, identifying variances, taking corrective action

 The nature of, and the purposes for which, information is gathered

 Collecting progress information

- Timesheets,

- Team progress meetings

- Error and change reports etc

 Presenting progress information

- Content of progress reports

- Graphical presentation of progress information e.g. accumulative resource charts (also known as S-curve charts)

- Use of earned value analysis, including where it would be applied in project life-cycle (Note: it is not expected that candidates be able to calculate and interpret earned value figures)

 The reporting cycle

- Reporting structures in projects

- Timing, personnel and purpose of different types of reporting meetings

 Corrective action

- Tolerance and contingency

- Exception reports and plans

- Management procedures involved in changing plans

- Options, including extending or staggering deadlines, increasing resources, reducing Functionality or quality requirements, cancelling the project etc.

4. Change Control and Configuration Management

 Reasons for change and configuration management

 Change control procedures

- Role of change control boards

- Generation of change requests

- Change request evaluation (e.g. its impact on the business case)

- Change request authorisation

 Configuration management

- Purpose and procedures

- Identification of configuration items

- Product baselines

- Configuration management databases: content and use

5. Quality

 Definitions of the term ‘quality e.g. ‘fitness for purpose

 Quality control versus quality assurance

 Defining quality: definition and measurement

 Detection of defects during the project life cycle

 Quality procedures: entry, process and exit requirements

 Defect removal processes, including testing and reviews

 Types of testing (including unit, integration, user acceptance, and regression testing)

 The inspection process, peer reviews

 Principles of IS0 9001:2000 quality management systems

 supplier evaluation

6. Estimating

 Effects of over and under-estimating

 Effort versus duration; relationship between effort and cost

 Estimates versus targets

 Use of expert judgement (advantages and disadvantages)

 The Delphi approach

 Top-down estimating

- Identification of size drivers (e.g. function points etc)

- Identification of productivity rates (e.g. function points per day)

- Need for past project data to establish productivity rates

- Factors affecting productivity rates (e.g. staff experience)

- Estimation of effort for new projects using productivity rates and size drivers

 Bottom up approaches to estimating

 Use of analogy in estimating

7. Risk

 Definition of the term ‘risk; components of risk: risk events (or triggers), probability, impact

 Ways of categorising risk, e.g. business versus project

 Identification and prioritisation of risk

 Assessment of risk exposure (i.e. combining consideration of potential damage and probability of loss)

 Risk responses and actions: risk prevention, reduction, acceptance, transfer and contingency planning

 Typical risks associated with information systems development

 Assessment of the costs/benefits of risk reduction activities

 Maintenance of risk registers and risk logs

8. Project Communications and Project Organisation

 Relationship between programmes and projects

 Identifying stakeholders and their concerns

 The project sponsor

 Establishment of the project authority (e.g. project board, steering committee etc.)

 Membership of project board/steering committee

 Roles and responsibilities of project board, project manager, stage manager, team leader

 Desirable characteristics of project manager

 Role of project support office

 The project team and matrix management

 Reporting structures and responsibilities

 Management styles and communication (including same time/same place; same time/different place, different time/same place, different time/different place)

 Team building (including phases of team cohesion e.g. forming, storming, norming, performing, adjourning)

 Team dynamics



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Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

Höhere Gewalt

Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

Technisches Versagen

Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

Kriminelle Ursachen

Hackerangriffe

Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

Physischer Angriff

Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.

Erpressung

Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:

Cyber-Kosten:

  • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
  • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
  • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
  • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

  • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
  • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
  • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
  • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
  • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
  • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
  • Rechtsverteidigungskosten

Cyber-Eigenschäden:

  • Betriebsunterbrechung
  • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
  • Mehrkosten
  • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
  • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
  • Cyber-Erpressung
  • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
  • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
  • Cyber-Betrug