Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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ISEE test Format | ISEE Course Contents | ISEE Course Outline | ISEE test Syllabus | ISEE test Objectives

The Independent School Entrance test (ISEE) is an admission test developed by the Educational Records Bureau (ERB) for its member schools as part of their admission process. The ISEE was created by Measurement Incorporated, Durham, NC, and ERB, with assistance from faculty of ERB member schools.

The current edition has been updated to include educational test best practices and to align with national standards in English and mathematics as articulated in standards adopted by the National Council of Teachers of English (NCTE) and the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM). Nearly two-thirds of the questions on the ISEE were developed by ERB-member faculty and administrators from a cross section of independent schools across the United States under the direction of test development certified at Measurement Incorporated.

The ISEE is the admission test of choice for many independent schools throughout the country and abroad. Test sites are available in numerous cities during the admission testing season. The ISEE consists of five sections at three levels designed to measure the verbal and quantitative reasoning and achievement of students in grades 4–11 seeking admission to grades 5–12 in independent schools. Students seeking admission to grades 5 or 6 take the Lower Level; students seeking admission to grades 7 or 8 take the Middle Level; and students seeking admission to grades 9–12 take the Upper Level.

It is important to note that the ISEE may not be taken for practice; it may be taken only for the purpose of providing scores to participating schools as part of the admission process. An applicant may take the ISEE only once per admission season or six month window.

The five sections that make up the ISEE are (in order of testing): Verbal Reasoning, Quantitative Reasoning, reading Comprehension, Mathematics Achievement, and an Essay which is written by the student in his or her own handwriting in response to a given writing prompt. Each section is designed to tap into a unique aspect of a students preparation for academic work.

The first four sections are composed of multiple-choice questions. The fifth section, the essay, is not scored but requires the student to respond in his or her own handwriting to a preselected writing prompt.

The first two sections, Verbal Reasoning and Quantitative Reasoning, measure the applicants reasoning ability.

The Upper Level Verbal Reasoning section consists of two types of items: vocabulary and sentence completion. Each vocabulary item consists of an abstract, grade-level appropriate word followed by four possible answer choices. Each sentence completion item consists of a sentence with one missing word or pair of words followed by four potential answer choices. A student must select the word or pair of words that most appropriately completes the context of the sentence.

At the Upper Level, the Quantitative Reasoning section consists of word problems and quantitative comparisons. The word problems differ somewhat from traditional mathematics achievement items in that some of them require either no calculation or simple calculation.

Mathematics Achievement items conform to national mathematics standards and ask the student to identify the problem and find a solution to a problem. The items require one or more steps in calculating the answer.

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Certification-Board Entrance PDF Dumps


National Board Certification FAQs

Should I take EDCI 5515 or EDCI 5959 credits?

EDCI 5515 credits should be taken if you want to use the National Board Certification toward your Master's degree in Curriculum & Instruction. EDCI 5959 credits are for continuing education only and will NOT be accepted on your Program of Study for the Master's degree in C&I. 

Will there be classes offered to help me proceed through the National Board Certification process?

Yes, a series of seminars and workshops are offered through the Wyoming National Board Certification Initiative each semester. Information about these seminars and workshops is posted and updated on the Wyoming NBC website. Graduate level Curriculum and Instruction credit is available for these seminars (courses listed as EDCI 5515). These courses are designed to support teachers as they grow as professionals and simultaneously proceed through the Board Certification process and the UW Master’s program.  

Where will the classes be offered?

The classes are offered around the state of Wyoming to allow participation across the state. Dates and locations for upcoming seminars and workshops can be found on the Wyoming NBC website. Participants enroll in the courses through UW Outreach Credit Programs (toll free phone number: 1-800-448-7801). Up to 9 total credit hours of the seminars can be taken by enrolled graduate students. Up to 9 total seminar/workshop credit hours may be applied as electives in the Curriculum and Instruction Master’s program.  

Who will teach these classes?

The seminars are taught by Barbara Maguire, a Nationally Board Certified teacher and expert in the NBC process.

How many times can I take the NBC class?

Graduate students/National Board Candidates can enroll in the seminars as many times as necessary/desired. For those seeking graduate degrees, up to 9 credits can be applied to the Curriculum and Instruction Master’s degree program as elective hours dependent upon the student’s committee approval.

What about tuition?

Students will pay regular graduate tuition for the seminar classes. View the current UW fee schedule. 

Will I need to complete a Thesis or Plan B paper to finish my C&I degree? No, the NBC Portfolios will be accepted in Lieu of a Plan B Paper for teachers pursuing NBC Certification and a UW Master’s degree simultaneously. This acceptance is dependent upon committee approval (not acceptance by the National Board). An agreement to utilize this procedure and maintain portfolio confidentiality has been reached between UW and the NBPTS (National Board for Professional Teaching Standards). The NBC portfolio must be submitted and defended (in a meeting with the student’s graduate committee) prior to initial submission to the NBPTS.  The committee’s portfolio copies will be destroyed after the defense.

Note: The Rubric for Assessment of the presentation  is provided below.

If I am already a National Board Certified teacher, can I apply my NBC work retroactively to a graduate degree?

No, the program is designed for those working on National Board Certification and a C&I Master’s degree simultaneously.

How do I apply for a UW Curriculum and Instruction Graduate Program?

 The graduate application and other information can be found here.

What if I have Additional Questions?

 If you have additional questions, please contact the UW Department of Curriculum and Instruction (curriculum@uwyo.edu; 307-766-6371).

Assessment Checklist for National Board Certification (NBC)

Portfolio & Presentation 

Committee members will evaluate the following areas and will determine if the student/NBC candidate accomplished each of these aims/activities at a level sufficient to warrant the substitution of the NBC portfolio and presentation for the Plan B requirement. S/U (Satisfactory/Unsatisfactory) will be assigned  for each area, and an overall evaluation of “S” must be achieved for portfolio to serve in lieu of the Plan B paper.  

______ Overall evaluation of the portfolio and presentation as suitable substitutes for Plan B

paper/project and defense

Presentation of NBC Portfolio to Master’s Committee:

______Student provides a brief overview of National Board Certification process and portfolio

______Student describes process of working on the portfolio (including connections to C&I courses

taken, time commitment, exams and data analysis, and reflections)

______ Student presents at least one explicit connection between the portfolio documentation and

his/her C&I Master’s Degree coursework (e.g. test strategy learned in literacy specific

course was used to evaluate student work included in NBC portfolio), and explains ways processes informed each other

_____ Student describes challenges, pleasures, difficulties associated with the NBC process

_____Student summarizes learning derived from portfolio process and completion

   More information on National Board Certification:

Visit our Course Schedule page to view projected MA core and emphasis course offerings

Corewell Health surgeon appointed to national certification board

GRAND RAPIDS, Mich. — A Corewell Health surgeon was appointed chair of the American Board of Surgery (ABS)!

The healthcare system tells us Dr. M. Ashraf Mansour will serve on the Board for the 2023–24 term.

Dr. Mansour is Corewell Health’s chief vascular surgeon.

The ABS certifies surgeons and other medical certified in the U.S.

Dr. Mansour first served on the ABS in 2016, according to Corewell Health. He served on the Board of Directors until 2019, after which he became a director of ABS’s governing board.

“It is a great honor to serve as the American Board of Surgery chair this year,” says Dr. Mansour. “I am very proud of all the accomplishments of the Board since I joined in 2016, from governance redesign to leading by example on diversity, equity, and inclusion.”

We’re told surgeons must have five or more years of residency training under their belts after completing medical school and meet ABS’s training and examination prerequisites to be certified by the ABS.

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Copyright 2023 Scripps Media, Inc. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten, or redistributed.

Puerto Rico Board Denies EPA Request to Dump Dredge Waste in Ocean

For Immediate Release, October 7, 2022


Federico Cintrón Moscoso, El Puente, (787) 529-5802, fcintronmoscoso@elpuente.usPedro Saadé Lloréns, University of Puerto Rico Law Clinic, (787) 397-9993, pedrosaade5@gmail.comCatherine Kilduff, Center for Biological Diversity, (202) 780-8862, ckilduff@biologicaldiversity.org

Puerto Rico Board Denies EPA Request to Dump Dredge Waste in Ocean

Shipping Channel Plan for LNG Facility Harms Communities, Corals, Marine Life

SAN JUAN, Puerto Rico— The Puerto Rico Planning Board has formally objected to the federal government’s plan to dispose of millions of cubic yards of dredge waste in five ocean sites around Puerto Rico without further environmental studies.

The board did not find the Environmental Protection Agency’s plan to be sufficient for preventing harm to coral reefs, which play a role in preserving fisheries and protecting communities and infrastructure from severe storms.

The EPA and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers had applied to the board for a “certification of consistency,” which would have confirmed that their plan was in line with the Puerto Rico Coastal Management Program. The federal plan would allow the ocean dumping of waste created by dredging the San Juan Bay shipping channel, which would supply large ships access to a new liquified natural gas terminal.

“This request to dispose of the contaminated material from the San Juan Bay around Puerto Rico, without consulting with the communities that have opposed the dredging, is contrary to the vision expressed by the EPA to pay more attention to environmental justice communities,” said Federico Cintrón Moscoso, director of the organization El Puente-Enlace Latino de Acción Climática. “Before this plan goes any further, they demand that all activities related to this dredging comply with an environmental impact statement in which the communities and affected groups have a chance to participate.”

The San Juan Bay Dredging Project involves dredging and disposing of more than 2 million cubic yards of sediment. Dumping this waste could contaminate ocean ecosystems with heavy metals like arsenic, cadmium and mercury, and other harmful chemicals such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and polychlorinated biphenyls.

Community and conservation groups — El Puente, CORALations and the Center for Biological Diversity — filed a federal lawsuit in August over the Army Corps’ plans to expand the shipping channel. The lawsuit challenges the Corps’ failure to prepare an environmental impact statement analyzing the effects gigantic tankers and the new LNG terminal will have on local communities, corals and wildlife. The suit also contests the Corps’ plan to dispose of some dredged material in the Condado Lagoon nature reserve, which is important habitat for manatees.

“Puerto Rico’s Planning Board deserves kudos for denying the EPA’s dirty dumping plan,” said Catherine Kilduff, an attorney at the Center for Biological Diversity. “Dumping waste onto corals in the ocean doubles the destruction from dredging projects. The San Juan dredging project saddles Puerto Rico with a dependence on fossil fuels and harm to communities and eco-tourism, and ocean disposal magnifies that damage.”

Sediment plumes leaking from barges carrying dredge waste often smother corals and other bottom-dwelling wildlife. Reefs along the north coast of San Juan near the proposed dumping sites provide habitat for seven species of Endangered Species Act-listed corals, including elkhorn, staghorn and pillar corals. Some of these areas are federally designated critical habitat for elkhorn and staghorn corals as well as proposed critical habitat for the other species.

Coral reefs — which are extremely biodiverse — also support several other marine species, providing habitat for more than 25% of all life in the ocean.

El Puente de Williamsburg, Inc. – Enlace Latino de Acción Climática is a group concerned about the impacts of climate change in the archipelago of Puerto Rico.

CORALations is an award-winning organization founded in Puerto Rico in 1995 to work with Caribbean communities to protect and restore their coral reefs.

The Center for Biological Diversity is a national, nonprofit conservation organization with more than 1.7 million members and online activists dedicated to the protection of endangered species and wild places.


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Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

Höhere Gewalt

Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

Technisches Versagen

Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

Kriminelle Ursachen


Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

Physischer Angriff

Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.


Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:


  • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
  • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
  • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
  • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

  • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
  • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
  • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
  • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
  • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
  • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
  • Rechtsverteidigungskosten


  • Betriebsunterbrechung
  • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
  • Mehrkosten
  • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
  • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
  • Cyber-Erpressung
  • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
  • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
  • Cyber-Betrug