Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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Exam Number : ISSEP
Exam Name : Information Systems Security Engineering Professional
Vendor Name : ISC2
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ISSEP test Format | ISSEP Course Contents | ISSEP Course Outline | ISSEP test Syllabus | ISSEP test Objectives


Length of test : 3 hours
Number of questions : 150
Question format : Multiple choice
Passing grade : 700 out of 1000 points
Exam availability : English
Testing center : Pearson VUE Testing Center

The Information Systems Security Engineering Professional (ISSEP) is a CISSP who specializes in the practical application of systems engineering principles and processes to develop secure systems. An ISSEP analyzes organizational needs, defines security requirements, designs security architectures, develops secure designs, implements system security, and supports system security test and authorization for government and industry.
The broad spectrum of courses included in the ISSEP Common Body of Knowledge (CBK) ensure its relevancy across all disciplines in the field of security engineering. Successful candidates are competent in the following

5 domains:
• Security Engineering Principles
• Risk Management
• Security Planning, Design, and Implementation
• Secure Operations, Maintenance, and Disposal
• Systems Engineering Technical Management

Domains Weight
1. Security Engineering Principles 22%
2. Risk Management 24%
3. Security Planning, Design, and Implementation 22%
4. Secure Operations, Maintenance, and Disposal 21%
5. Systems Engineering Technical Management 11%
Total: 100%

Domain 1:
Security Engineering Principles
1.1 General Security Principles
1.2 Security Risk Management Principles
1.3 System Resilience Principles
1.4 Vulnerability Management Principles
» Align security risk management with enterprise risk management
» Integrate risk management throughout the lifecycle
» Identify organizational security authority
» Identify elements of a system security policy
» Understand trust concepts and hierarchies
» Determine boundaries governed by security
policies
» Specify complete mediation
» Determine least common mechanism
» Understand open design concepts
» Analyze psychological acceptability/usability
» Understand the importance of consistent measurement
» Apply resilience methods to address threats
» Understand concepts of layered security
» Specify fail-safe defaults
» Avoid single points of failure
» Incorporate least privilege concepts
» Understand economy of mechanism
» Understand separation of privilege/duties concepts
» Understand security best practices applicable to the context

Domain 2:
Risk Management
2.1 Risk Management Process
2.2 Operational Risk Management
» Confirm operational risk appetite
» Identify remediation needs and other system changes
» Propose remediation for unaccepted security risks
» Assess proposed remediation or change activities
» Participate in implementation of the remediation or change
» Perform verification and validation activities relative to the requirements impacted
» Update risk test documentation to account for the impact of the remediation or change
» Establish risk context
» Identify system security risks
» Perform risk analysis
» Perform risk evaluation
» Recommend risk treatment options

Domain 3: Security Planning, Design, and Implementation

3.1 Stakeholder Requirements Definition
3.2 Requirements Analysis
3.3 System Security Architecture and Design
3.4 Implementation, Integration, and Deployment of Systems or System Modifications
3.5 Verification and Validation of Systems or System Modifications
Domain 3:
Security Planning, Design, and Implementation
» Define security roles and responsibilities
» Understand stakeholders mission/business and operational environment
» Identify security-relevant constraints and assumptions
» Identify and assess threats to assets
» Determine protection needs
» Document stakeholder requirements
» Analyze stakeholder requirements
» Develop system security context
» Identify security functions within the security concept of operations
» Develop system security requirements baseline
» Analyze and define security constraints
» Analyze system security requirements for completeness, adequacy, conflicts, and inconsistencies
» Perform functional analysis and allocation
» Maintain mutual traceability between specified design and system requirements
» Define system security design components
» Perform trade-off studies for system components
» Assess information protection effectiveness

Domain 4:
Secure Operations, Maintenance, and Disposal
4.1 Secure Operations
4.2 Secure Maintenance
4.3 Secure Disposal
» Document and maintain secure operations strategy
» Maintain and monitor continuous monitoring processes
» Support the incident response process
» Develop and direct secure maintenance strategy
» Participate in system remediation and change management processes
» Perform scheduled security reviews
» Develop and direct secure disposal strategy
» Verify proper security protections are in place during the decommissioning and disposal processes
» Document all actions and results of the disposal process

Domain 5:
Systems Engineering Technical Management
5.1 Acquisition Process
5.2 System Development Methodologies
5.3 Technical Management Processes
» Prepare security requirements for acquisitions
» Participate in vendor selection
» Participate in supply chain risk management
» Participate in contractual documentation development to verify security inclusion
» Perform acquisition acceptance verification and validation
» Integrate security tasks and activities into system development methodologies
» Verify security requirements are met throughout the process
» Identify opportunities for automation of security processes
» Perform project planning processes
» Perform project test and control processes
» Perform decision management processes
» Perform risk management processes
» Perform configuration management processes
» Perform information management processes
» Perform measurement processes
» Perform quality assurance processes



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Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

Höhere Gewalt

Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

Technisches Versagen

Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

Kriminelle Ursachen

Hackerangriffe

Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

Physischer Angriff

Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.

Erpressung

Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:

Cyber-Kosten:

  • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
  • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
  • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
  • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

  • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
  • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
  • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
  • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
  • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
  • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
  • Rechtsverteidigungskosten

Cyber-Eigenschäden:

  • Betriebsunterbrechung
  • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
  • Mehrkosten
  • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
  • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
  • Cyber-Erpressung
  • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
  • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
  • Cyber-Betrug