Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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Exam Number : ISSMP
Exam Name : Information Systems Security Management Professional
Vendor Name : ISC2
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ISSMP exam Format | ISSMP Course Contents | ISSMP Course Outline | ISSMP exam Syllabus | ISSMP exam Objectives


Length of exam : 3 hours

Questions : 125

Question format : Multiple choice

Passing grade : 700 out of 1000 points

Exam availability : English

Testing center : Pearson VUE Testing Center



The Information Systems Security Architecture Professional (ISSAP) is a CISSP who specializes in designing security solutions and providing management with risk-based guidance to meet organizational goals. ISSAPs facilitate the alignment of security solutions within the organizational context (e.g., vision, mission, strategy, policies, requirements, change, and external factors).

The broad spectrum of syllabus included in the ISSAP Common Body of Knowledge (CBK) ensure its relevancy across all disciplines in the field of information security. Successful candidates are competent in the following six domains:



• Identity and Access Management Architecture

• Security Operations Architecture

• Infrastructure Security

• Architect for Governance, Compliance, and Risk Management

• Security Architecture Modeling

• Architect for Application Security



1. Identity and Access Management Architecture 19%

2. Security Operations Architecture 17%

3. Infrastructure Security 19%

4. Architect for Governance, Compliance, and Risk Management 16%

5. Security Architecture Modeling 14%

6. Architect for Application Security 15%

Total: 100%



Domain 1: Identity and Access Management Architecture



Design Identity Management and Lifecycle

» Identification and Authentication

» Centralized Identity and Access Management Architecture

» Decentralized Identity and Access Management Architecture

» Identity Provisioning Lifecycle (e.g., registration, issuance, revocation, validation)

» Authentication Protocols and Technologies (e.g., SAML, RADIUS, Kerberos, OATH)



Design Access Control Management and Lifecycle

» Application of Control Concepts and Principles (e.g., discretionary/mandatory, segregation/ separation of duties, rule of least privilege)

» Access Control Governance

» Access Control Configurations (e.g., physical, logical, administrative)

» Authorization Process and Workflow (e.g., issuance, periodic review, revocation)

» Roles, Rights, and Responsibilities Related to System, Application, and Data Access Control (e.g., groups, Digital Rights Management (DRM), trust relationships)

» Authorization (e.g., single sign-on, rule-based, role-based, attribute-based)

» Accounting (e.g., logging, tracking, auditing)

» Access Control Protocols and Technologies (e.g., XACML, LDAP)

» Network Access Control



Domain 2: Security Operations Architecture



Determine Security Operation Capability Requirements and Strategy

» Determine Legal Imperatives

» Determine Organizational Drivers and Strategy

» Determine Organizational Constraints

» Map Current Capabilities to Organization Strategy

» Design Security Operations Strategy

2.2 Design Continuous Security Monitoring (e.g., SIEM, insider threat, enterprise log management, cyber crime, advanced persistent threat)

» Detection and Response

» Content Monitoring, Inspection, and Filtering (e.g., email, web, data, social media)

» Anomoly Detection (e.g., baseline, analytics, false positive reduction)

2.3 Design Continuity, Availability, and Recovery Solutions

» Incorporate Business Impact Analysis (BIA) Information (e.g., legal, financial, stakeholders)

» Determine Security Strategies for Availability and Recovery

» Design Continuity and Recovery Solution

2.4 Define Security Operations (e.g., interoperability, scalability, availability, supportability)

2.5 Integrate Physical Security Controls

» Assess Physical Security Requirements

» Integrate Physical Security Products and Systems

» Evaluate Physical Security Solutions (e.g., test, evaluate, implement)

2.6 Design Incident Management Capabilities

2.7 Secure Communications and Networks

» Design the Maintenance Plan for the Communication and Network Architecture

» Determine Communications Architecture

» Determine Network Architecture

» Communication and Network Policies

» Remote Access



Domain 3: Infrastructure Security



3.1 Determine Infrastructure Security Capability Requirements and Strategy

3.2 Design Layer 2/3 Architecture (e.g., access control segmentation, out-of-band management, OSI layers)

3.3 Secure Common Services (e.g., wireless, e-mail, VoIP, unified communications)

3.4 Architect Detective, Deterrent, Preventative, and Control Systems

» Design Boundary Protection (e.g., firewalls, VPNs, airgaps, BYOD, software defined perimeters)

» Secure Device Management (e.g., BYOD, mobile, server, endpoint)

3.5 Architect Infrastructure Monitoring

» Monitor Integration (e.g., sensor placement, time reconciliation, span of control, record compatibility)

» Active/Passive Solutions (e.g., span port, port mirroring, tap, inline)

3.6 Design Integrated Cryptographic Solutions (e.g., Public Key Infrastructure (PKI), identity system integration)

» Determine Usage (i.e., in transit, at rest)

» Define Key Management Lifecycle

» Identify Cryptographic Design Considerations and Constraints



Domain 4: Architect for Governance, Compliance, and Risk Management



4.1 Architect for Governance and Compliance

» Auditability (e.g., regulatory, legislative, forensic requirements, segregation, verifiability of high assurance systems)

» Secure Sourcing Strategy

» Apply Existing Information Security Standards and Guidelines (e.g., ISO/IEC, PCI, SOX, SOC2)

» Governing the Organizational Security Portfolio

4.2 Design Threat and Risk Management Capabilities

» Identify Security Design Considerations and Associated Risks

» Design for Compliance

» Assess Third Parties (e.g., auditing and risk registry)

4.3 Architect Security Solutions for Off-Site Data Use and Storage

» Cloud Service Providers

» Third Party

» Network Solutions Service Providers (NSSP)

4.4 Operating Environment (e.g., virtualization, cloud computing)



Domain 5: Security Architecture Modeling



5.1 Identify Security Architecture Approach (e.g., reference architectures, build guides, blueprints, patterns)

» Types and Scope (e.g., enterprise, network, SOA)

» Frameworks (e.g., Sherwood Applied Business Security Architecture (SABSA), Service-Oriented Modeling Framework (SOMF))

» Industrial Control Systems (ICS) (e.g., process automation networks, work interdependencies, monitoring requirements)

» Security Configuration (e.g., baselines)

» Network Configuration (e.g., physical, logical, high availability)

» Reference Architectures

5.2 Verify and Validate Design (e.g., POT, FAT, regression)

» Validate Threat Model (e.g., access control attacks, cryptanalytic attacks, network)

» Identification of Gaps and Alternative Solutions

» Independent Verification and Validation

» Evaluate Controls Against Threats and Vulnerabilities

» Validation of Design Against Reference Architectures



Domain 6: Architect for Application Security



6.1 Review Software Development Life Cycle (SDLC) Integration of Application Security Architecture (e.g., requirements traceability matrix, security architecture documentation, secure coding)

» Assess When to Use Automated vs. Manual vs. Static Secure Code Reviews Based on Risk

» Assess the Need for Web Application Firewalls (e.g., REST, API, SAML)

» Review the Need for Encryption between Identity Providers at the Transport and Content Layers

» Assess the Need for Secure Communications between Applications and Databases or other Endpoints

» Leverage Secure Code Repository

6.2 Review Application Security (e.g., custom, commercial off-the-shelf (COTS), in-house cloud)

6.3 Determine Application Security Capability Requirements and Strategy (e.g., open source, cloud service providers, SaaS/IaaS providers)

6.4 Design Application Cryptographic Solutions (e.g., cryptographic API selection, PRNG selection, software-based key management)

6.5 Evaluate Application Controls Against Existing Threats and Vulnerabilities

6.6 Determine and Establish Application Security Approaches for all System Components (mobile, web, and thick client applications; proxy, application, and database services)



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Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

Höhere Gewalt

Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

Technisches Versagen

Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

Kriminelle Ursachen

Hackerangriffe

Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

Physischer Angriff

Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.

Erpressung

Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:

Cyber-Kosten:

  • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
  • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
  • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
  • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

  • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
  • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
  • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
  • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
  • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
  • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
  • Rechtsverteidigungskosten

Cyber-Eigenschäden:

  • Betriebsunterbrechung
  • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
  • Mehrkosten
  • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
  • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
  • Cyber-Erpressung
  • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
  • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
  • Cyber-Betrug