Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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Exam Number : ISTQB-Advanced-Level-3
Exam Name : ISTQB Advanced LevelTechnical Test
Vendor Name : ASTQB
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ISTQB-Advanced-Level-3 exam Format | ISTQB-Advanced-Level-3 Course Contents | ISTQB-Advanced-Level-3 Course Outline | ISTQB-Advanced-Level-3 exam Syllabus | ISTQB-Advanced-Level-3 exam Objectives

Test Detail:
The ASTQB ISTQB-Advanced-Level-3 (ISTQB Advanced Level Technical Test Analyst) is a certification exam designed for experienced software testers who want to enhance their skills and knowledge in technical test analysis. Here is a detailed description of the test, including the number of questions and time allocation, course outline, exam objectives, and exam syllabus.

Number of Questions and Time:
The number of questions and time allocation for the ASTQB ISTQB-Advanced-Level-3 exam may vary depending on the specific version or administration of the test. Generally, the exam consists of multiple-choice questions, essay-type questions, and scenario-based questions. The number of questions can range from 60 to 80, and candidates are typically given a time limit of 180 minutes (3 hours) to complete the test.

Course Outline:
The course outline for the ASTQB ISTQB-Advanced-Level-3 exam covers a wide range of syllabus related to technical test analysis. The outline may include the following key areas:

1. Testing Process:
- Test planning, estimation, and control
- Test progress monitoring and reporting
- Test metrics and measurements
- Incident management

2. Test Techniques:
- Specification-based techniques
- Defect-based techniques
- Experience-based techniques
- Exploratory testing

3. Test Tools and Automation:
- Test tool concepts and selection
- Test tool implementation and deployment
- Test automation design and development
- Test execution and maintenance

4. Test-related Measurements:
- Test-related metrics
- Test coverage analysis
- Test process improvement
- Risk-based testing

Exam Objectives:
The objectives of the ASTQB ISTQB-Advanced-Level-3 exam are to assess candidates' knowledge, understanding, and practical application of technical test analysis. The exam aims to evaluate the following key areas:

1. Test planning, estimation, and control skills to effectively manage technical test analysis activities.
2. Proficiency in using various test techniques to identify, design, and execute test cases.
3. Knowledge of test tools and automation to enhance testing efficiency and effectiveness.
4. Ability to measure and analyze test-related metrics for monitoring and improving the testing process.
5. Understanding of risk-based testing principles and their application in technical test analysis.

Exam Syllabus:
The exam syllabus for the ASTQB ISTQB-Advanced-Level-3 exam typically covers the following subjects:

1. Introduction to Technical Test Analysis
2. Testing Process
3. Test Techniques
4. Test Tools and Automation
5. Test-related Measurements

Candidates should refer to the official ASTQB ISTQB-Advanced-Level-3 study materials and resources provided by the test administrator for accurate and up-to-date information on the specific syllabus and content covered in the exam. It is recommended to allocate sufficient time for exam preparation, including studying relevant subjects, reviewing key concepts, and practicing with demo questions.

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  • ENG vs AUS 5th Test, Day 5 weather forecast: Will rain deny England another opportunity to level Ashes series?

    Only 39.5 overs of play was possible on Day 4 of the deciding fifth Test match between England and Australia in the ongoing fifth Test match of the Ashes series as the game has come to the final day. Rain denied England a chance to level the series in Manchester in the fourth Test despite taking a 275-run lead in the first innings and the hosts will hope that's not the case at the Oval as well with no play in the second half on Sunday, July 31.

    Even though Australia are 135/0, there are still 249 more runs to be scored by the visitors and all three results are still possible. Australian openers David Warner and Usman Khawaja saved their best partnership for the last as the visitors chase a historic Ashes series win in England, having already taken a 2-1 lead in the series. 

    The forecast for the final day on Monday, July 31 looks a lot better, however, there might be interruptions on Day 5 as well. As per Accuweather, the probability of rain during the daytime is at 25 per cent while increasing to 48 per cent in the evening. Even though it is going to stay overcast for the whole day, the probability of thunderstorms at zero percent during the day and 10 per cent in the evening suggests that the showers might not be strong enough to wash out the whole day but the rain will need to allow England to have enough time to bowl Australia out.

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    Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

    Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

    Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

    Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

    Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

    Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

    Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

    Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

    Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

    Höhere Gewalt

    Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

    Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

    Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

    Technisches Versagen

    Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

    Kriminelle Ursachen


    Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

    Physischer Angriff

    Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.


    Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

    Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:


    • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
    • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
    • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
    • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

    Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

    • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
    • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
    • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
    • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
    • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
    • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
    • Rechtsverteidigungskosten


    • Betriebsunterbrechung
    • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
    • Mehrkosten
    • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
    • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
    • Cyber-Erpressung
    • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
    • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
    • Cyber-Betrug