Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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Exam Number : Javascript-Developer-I
Exam Name : Salesforce Certified JavaScript Developer I
Vendor Name : SalesForce
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Javascript-Developer-I exam Format | Javascript-Developer-I Course Contents | Javascript-Developer-I Course Outline | Javascript-Developer-I exam Syllabus | Javascript-Developer-I exam Objectives

Exam Details for Javascript-Developer-I Salesforce Certified JavaScript Developer I:

Exam Specification:
- Number of Questions: The exam typically consists of multiple-choice questions, with a total of approximately 60 questions.
- Time Limit: The total time allocated for the exam is usually 90 minutes.
- Passing Score: The passing score for the exam varies, but it is generally set around 65% or higher.
- exam Format: The exam is usually conducted in a proctored environment, either in-person or online.

Course Outline:

The Salesforce Certified JavaScript Developer I course covers the following key areas:

1. Introduction to JavaScript:
- JavaScript basics, syntax, and data types
- Variables, operators, and control structures
- Functions, arrays, and objects in JavaScript
- Working with DOM (Document Object Model)
- Handling events and event-driven programming

2. JavaScript in Salesforce:
- Overview of JavaScript in the Salesforce platform
- JavaScript buttons and links in Salesforce
- Customizing page layouts using JavaScript
- Client-side validation and form manipulation
- Working with Visualforce pages and components

3. Advanced JavaScript Concepts:
- Error handling and debugging techniques
- Asynchronous programming with JavaScript (promises, async/await)
- Manipulating JSON data and working with APIs
- JavaScript frameworks and libraries (e.g., jQuery, Angular, React)
- Performance optimization and best practices

4. Security and Governance:
- JavaScript security considerations
- Preventing common vulnerabilities (e.g., Cross-Site Scripting)
- Accessing Salesforce data securely with JavaScript
- Implementing security policies and practices

Exam Objectives:

The objectives of the Javascript-Developer-I exam are to assess the candidate's understanding of the following:

1. JavaScript fundamentals and syntax.
2. JavaScript usage in the Salesforce platform.
3. Advanced JavaScript concepts and techniques.
4. JavaScript security considerations.
5. Best practices for JavaScript development in Salesforce.

Exam Syllabus:

The exam syllabus for Javascript-Developer-I includes the following topics:

1. Introduction to JavaScript
2. JavaScript in Salesforce
3. Advanced JavaScript Concepts
4. Security and Governance

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SalesForce Developer education


Low-code and no-code: Meant for citizen developers, but embraced by IT

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Low-code and no-code software development tools and platforms, increasingly super-charged with artificial intelligence, are helping to offload IT department workloads. Business end-users are creating their own apps, within guardrails and monitoring by IT. Interestingly, it appears that the most enthusiastic users of low and no-code tools may be IT professionals themselves. 

For starters, it means a lot more development work can get done. IT professionals have more on their plates than they can handle -- from supporting their organizations' digital initiatives to AI development, not to mention security and compliance -- all within the restraints of tight budgets or even staff layoffs.

Also: 'The world is running out of developers', says Salesforce exec

"Low-code and no-code tools are a way to mitigate talent shortages because they allow companies to build software systems without the need for large teams of developers," says  Amitha Pulijala, vice president of product, cloud platform services, CX, API, and AI at Vonage. "These tools also expand the overall population of people within an organization -- from early-stage developer to senior developer -- that are able to build these systems."

This builds an entirely new workforce of adjunct developers, and calls for "ushering in a class of citizen developers to create simple apps as a starting point to combat the developer shortage," agrees Stanley Huang, co-founder and CTO at Moxo.

Citizen developers employing low code and no code "have the potential to be the talent shortage's saving grace," Huang says. "Alongside the booming of low-code and no-code platforms and citizen developers, IT departments have been freed up from a resource perspective, allowing them to evolve beyond cost centers and into more proactive implementers of technology, overseeing policy, compliance and identifying new business opportunities and streams of revenue."   

Also: Generative AI may help make 'low-code' more 'no-code' - with important caveats

A survey of IT professionals by AirSlate found that 41% of tech teams "feel they're spending too much time on manual administrative tasks," reports Shawn Herring, CMO of AirSlate. "Instead of over-hiring, low-code and no-code, offer an organization agility to navigate the ebbs and flows of demand and simultaneously give time back to employees to spend on more value-add tasks."    

Low and no-code continue to gain popularity because organizations "are realizing that these tools are not just for early-stage or beginner citizen developers but also for sophisticated, senior developers to save them valuable time and effort," says Pulijala. "Low-code/no-code helps, whether it's addressing talent shortages or freeing up other developers' time. With low-code/no-code solutions, a junior product manager can build a basic prototype, freeing up more senior engineers to focus on customized, higher code solutions. In addition to mitigating talent shortages, low-code/no-code tools Strengthen business agility and contribute to cost savings since it significantly reduces hiring costs and application maintenance costs."  

Applications best suited for low and no-code development include "public-facing websites, basic online marketplaces, mobile applications, virtual assistants, voice agents and chatbots," Pulijala illustrates. "While no-code solutions are built from the point-of-view of a non-developer user, they will at times still require professional IT intervention. Enterprise applications can be complex and outages can happen, requiring IT to step in to triage and get things running again."  

Also: Everyone loves low-code/no-code development, but not all are ready for it

Still, it's important to note that the sweet spot for low-code and no-code tools is for tech-savvy business users seeking to "automate processes that are data dense, which often have complex business logic, but are light on systems load and don't require much user interactivity," says Michael Allen, CTO at Laserfiche. "Apps built using low-code, no-code tools typically have low throughput and latency requirements and don't require much beyond a simple web form or a mobile app for a user interface. These power users "combine deep domain knowledge with technical skills."  

This type of user "is able to define data models for their domain and to break down complex processes into discrete steps, but typically lack formal training in programming or computer science," Allen continues. "The advantage they have over traditional software developers is their intimate knowledge of the problem domain. Their motivation is to provide their customers or users with better service, delivered more efficiently."

Tech Moves: Former Salesforce exec joins e-commerce startup Fabric as CEO

No result found, try new keyword!— Seattle e-commerce startup Fabric named veteran tech leader Mike Micucci as CEO. Micucci founded GroupSwim, a business networking startup acquired by Salesforce in 2009. He then spent 11 years at ...

Daily Digest: Major airline to cut SFO routes; Salesforce loses another exec

No result found, try new keyword!San Francisco-based real estate investor and developer Tidewater Capital has appointed Nick Bryer as its managing director. Most recently serving as senior vice president at The Roxborough Group, ...

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Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

Höhere Gewalt

Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

Technisches Versagen

Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

Kriminelle Ursachen


Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

Physischer Angriff

Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.


Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:


  • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
  • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
  • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
  • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

  • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
  • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
  • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
  • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
  • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
  • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
  • Rechtsverteidigungskosten


  • Betriebsunterbrechung
  • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
  • Mehrkosten
  • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
  • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
  • Cyber-Erpressung
  • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
  • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
  • Cyber-Betrug