Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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Exam Number : LEED-GA
Exam Name : LEED Green Associate
Vendor Name : LEED
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LEED-GA test Format | LEED-GA Course Contents | LEED-GA Course Outline | LEED-GA test Syllabus | LEED-GA test Objectives

Test Detail:
The LEED Green Associate (LEED-GA) test is conducted by the U.S. Green Building Council (USGBC) as part of the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) certification program. This test assesses candidates' understanding of green building principles, practices, and the LEED rating system. Below is a detailed description of the test, including the number of questions and time allocation, course outline, test objectives, and test syllabus.

Number of Questions and Time:
The LEED-GA test consists of multiple-choice questions. The number of questions and time allocation for the test are as follows:

- Number of Questions: Approximately 100
- Time: 2 hours

Course Outline:
The LEED-GA course covers the fundamental principles and concepts of green building and the LEED rating system. The course provides candidates with a comprehensive understanding of sustainable design, construction, and operations practices. The course outline typically includes the following key areas:

1. Introduction to Green Building and LEED:
- Understanding the principles of sustainable design and construction
- Exploring the goals and benefits of green building
- Overview of the LEED rating system and its various categories

2. Sustainable Site Selection and Development:
- Strategies for site selection and site planning
- Best practices for minimizing site disturbance and preserving ecosystems
- Stormwater management and water-efficient landscaping

3. Water Efficiency and Energy Conservation:
- Designing and implementing water-efficient systems and fixtures
- Energy conservation strategies and renewable energy sources
- Indoor water use reduction and energy performance optimization

4. Materials and Resources:
- Sustainable materials selection and resource conservation
- Construction waste management and recycling
- Life-cycle test and environmental product declarations

5. Indoor Environmental Quality:
- Indoor air quality management and ventilation systems
- Daylighting and views to the outdoors
- Thermal comfort and acoustical performance

Exam Objectives:
The LEED-GA test aims to assess candidates' knowledge and understanding of green building principles, the LEED rating system, and sustainable design practices. The key objectives of the test include:

1. Knowledge of Green Building Concepts:
- Understanding the principles and benefits of green building
- Knowledge of sustainable site selection, water efficiency, energy conservation, materials and resources, and indoor environmental quality

2. Familiarity with the LEED Rating System:
- Understanding the structure and requirements of the LEED rating system
- Knowledge of the different LEED categories and associated credits

3. Understanding the Roles and Responsibilities of a LEED Green Associate:
- Familiarity with the responsibilities of a LEED Green Associate in project teams
- Knowledge of the documentation and certification process for LEED projects

Exam Syllabus:
The LEED-GA test syllabus covers the necessary knowledge areas required to demonstrate proficiency in green building principles and the LEED rating system. The specific content and emphasis may vary slightly, so candidates are advised to consult the official USGBC website or study materials for the most up-to-date test syllabus.

Candidates should allocate sufficient time for test preparation, including studying the LEED Green Associate Candidate Handbook, reviewing the LEED reference guide, and practicing with sample test questions to assess their knowledge and readiness.

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LEED Green teaching


LEED Buildings

The Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) program is hosted by the U.S. Green Building Council (USGBC) and is the nation's preeminent program for the design, construction and operation of high-performance green buildings.

LEED certified buildings are proven to save money, Strengthen efficiency, lower carbon emissions and create healthier environments for people. They are a critical part of addressing the climate crisis, meeting ESG goals, enhancing resilience, and supporting more equitable communities.

Take their Virtual Sustainability Tour to learn more about LEED buildings at ESF, as well as many other sustainable campus features. Visit their Buildings impact area page for more information about all of their campus buildings and their sustainable operation.

leedp Gateway Center: Platinum

  The Gateway Center was awarded LEED Platinum Certification in 2014.     This is the highest level attainable within the program.

The Gateway Center, which formally opened in September 2013, is both a hub for campus activity and a teaching tool that demonstrates sustainability. The building features a combined heat and power system designed to provide the campus with 60% of its heating needs and 20% of its electrical power. It also features a green roof that uses native plant species from eastern Lake Ontario dunes and alvar pavement barrens at the northeastern end of Lake Ontario. The roof serves as both a research and demonstration project.

The building has received other honors:

  • 2013 American Institute of Architects New England Merit Award for Design Excellence
  • 2013 Boston Society of Architects Sustainable Design Award
  • 2014 American Society of Landscape Architects, New York Chapter, Design Merit Award for the green roof
  • 2014 American Institute of Architects top-10 building
  • Our LEED scorecard is on the USGBC website.

    leedgCentennial Hall: Gold 

     In 2011, Centennial Hall became the first residence hall on the Syracuse campus, as well as the first building on campus to achieve the LEED Gold rating.

    Centennial Hall was constructed using sustainable building materials, to the greatest extent possible, and prefabricated modular units that minimized waste and helped keep the project on a tight construction schedule. Windows were designed to take advantage of natural lighting, minimize heat loss and provide for natural ventilation. The storm water management system uses rain gardens to essentially eliminate runoff, the landscaping includes native plants, minimizes maintenance, and provides a pedestrian-friendly setting. Space for automobile parking is limited. The building also includes a popular indoor storage and cleaning facility for residents' bicycles.

    "The work of innovative building projects such as SUNY-ESF's Centennial Hall is a fundamental driving force in the green building movement." said Rick Fedrizzi, President, CEO and founding chair of the U.S. Green Building Council.

    Our LEED scorecard is on the USGBC website.

    leedgMarshall Hall: Seeking Gold

    Marshall Hall was built in 1933 and is currently undergoing its first significant renovation in over 40 years. The current project is taking the building down to its structural skeleton and building it back better than ever before. This project is designed with a Deep Energy Savings Retrofit target of 50% energy reduction relative to the building’s existing consumption and the goal of LEED Gold certification.

    Marshall Hall will be equipped with high-efficiency condensing boilers. Additionally, the perimeter steam radiators, gravity unit ventilators, fan coil units and all steam and condensate piping will be replaced with a building-wide hydronic heating system with occupancy-based controls.

    Marshall Hall is on schedule to reopen for the Fall 2023 semester. 

    leedsBaker Laboratory: Seeking Silver

    Over the course of several years, students taking CME 496, Principles of Green Buildings, took the LEED Green Associate exam, while also completing the requirements for LEED Existing Buildings Operations and Maintenance certification.  The class submitted their application in and the College hopes to have the final approval soon.

    In 2008, Baker Laboratory underwent a large rehabilitation project and added high-tech lecture halls and computer labs, using the latest in green construction practices at the time. Green innovations used in the project included extensive use of electronic lighting controls and occupancy sensors in the rooms and a sophisticated building management system. This digital control system regulates the air handling and exhaust systems.

    Baker also features a 23 kW (kilowatt) photovoltaic system, which provides window shading to the south side of the building. The building extensively utilized recycled building materials, maximizes the use of natural lighting and recovers storm water from the roof for gray water applications. Four 1,000-gallon storage tanks are installed in the basement of Baker Lab to collect rainwater from the roof. The water is used to wash vehicles in the Colleges fleet.


    A milestone towards a sustainable future

    Congratulations and a big round of applause are due to Bangladesh's apparel makers for bringing glory to the nation by reaching a new milestone of having 200 globally certified green factories.

    Achieving the certification of LEED, which stands for Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design, always carries great pride for any individual factory, but when 200 factories from a single sector achieve such recognition, it brings prestige, pride and joy beyond comparison, not only for the individual factories but also for the nation.

    Therefore, when the news broke that the number of globally recognised green garment factories in Bangladesh reached 200, I, along with, all stakeholders of the sector felt overwhelmed with joy and pride. The presence of such a large number of green factories can't be found in any other country. That means Bangladesh is a global leader in green garment production and environmental sustainability.

    Bangladesh is also home to half of the world's top 100 green factories, including the highest-rated green factory in the world. Thirteen out of the top 15 LEED green factories are located in Bangladesh. As the momentum continues, 18 factories received LEED certification so far this year despite all the challenges in the global and local arena.

    Awarded by the US Green Building Council (USGBC), the LEED rating system is an effective and globally accepted tool to evaluate the environmental performance of buildings and measure their sustainability. It provides a framework for healthy, efficient, carbon and cost-saving green buildings. It is widely recognised as the industry standard for green building in the US and used in more than 160 countries.

    Among the Bangladeshi green garment factories, 73 are platinum-rated, 113 are gold-rated, 10 are silver-rated, and four have simply received certifications. Some 500 more factories are in the pipeline to receive LEED certifications.

    In February, Green Textile Limited Unit 4, a joint concern of Epic Group and Envoy Legacy of Bangladesh, became the best green factory in the world by scoring 104 out of 110.

    To receive the certification, factories are required to maintain the highest standards regarding carbon emission, energy and water usage, waste management, and indoor environmental quality under the strict supervision of the USGBC.

    Green factories use energy-efficient and environment-friendly technologies and practices that save water and energy, minimise pollution and help save the planet as well as protect the health of their employees. The air and water bodies are not polluted in the vicinity of green factories thanks to their advanced waste management system.

    The growing number of green garment factories in the country is a testament to Bangladesh's RMG industry's rapid transition towards environmental sustainability. Pursuing economic growth at the expense of the environment is no longer an option for us because Bangladesh, along with the whole world, is facing severe impacts of climate change.

    Going green is not only good for the environment, but also for business since major brands and buyers prefer to source from green factories as part of ethical sourcing and ethical consumerism campaigns.

    In order to take environmental sustainability to the next level, the RMG industry is now focusing on circular fashion. To this end, manufacturers, buyers, and recyclers are making concerted efforts in collecting and reusing textile waste. As a result, clothes are being produced using recycled fibres and fabrics, which is giving rise to a circular and climate-neutral garment sector in Bangladesh.

    The author is president of the Bangladesh Garment Manufacturers and Exporters Association (BGMEA).

    How LEED Updates Will Impact Cleaning Contractors

    Green checkmark certified

    Contributed by The Ashkin Group

    The U.S. Green Building Council (USGBC) is revising its Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) Rating System, introducing new prerequisites that will apply to buildings seeking certification and the cleaning contractors that clean these facilities.

    This is according to Steve Ashkin, a board member at the USGBC and the professional cleaning industry’s leading advocate for sustainability. Board members will vote on these new prerequisites and related issues, with their decisions made public in late September 2023, at the International Greenbuild Conference in Washington, DC.

    Among the prerequisites and requirements LEED is concentrating on include the following:

    • Redirecting LEED’s emphasis from certifying new construction to certifying pre-existing buildings.

    • Increasing the number of credits (points) from one to three that can be earned by facilities using Green Cleaning methods and products. “This indicates the importance LEED puts on Green Cleaning,” says Ashkin.

    • Addressing climate change issues, helping facilities reduce their negative impacts on the environment, and become more resilient to the effects of climate change.

    • Focus more on social equity issues such as quality of life issues and improved living standards for cleaning workers.

    So, they are clear, prerequisites are requirements that a facility must meet before it can begin the LEED certification process. A perfect example is ensuring that Green Cleaning products are already being used in a facility.

    “When it comes to equity, my focus is on fairness and justice for cleaning workers and their well-being,” adds Ashkin. “I want to see cleaning workers — in fact their entire industry — be more respected and valued.”

    Ashkin adds that while most contract cleaning companies are beginning to address equity issues, “too many are still involved in illegal contracting, paying workers under the table, and even hiring child workers. This is bad for [our] workers and the entire cleaning industry.”

    Ashkin adds that once the prerequisites have been voted on and are in place, their impact will stretch beyond building owners and managers.

    “LEED is looking at the total picture,” adds Ashkin. “There can be no missing links, and this includes how a facility is cleaned and maintained.”


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    Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

    Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

    Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

    Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

    Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

    Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

    Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

    Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

    Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

    Höhere Gewalt

    Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

    Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

    Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

    Technisches Versagen

    Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

    Kriminelle Ursachen


    Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

    Physischer Angriff

    Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.


    Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

    Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:


    • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
    • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
    • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
    • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

    Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

    • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
    • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
    • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
    • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
    • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
    • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
    • Rechtsverteidigungskosten


    • Betriebsunterbrechung
    • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
    • Mehrkosten
    • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
    • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
    • Cyber-Erpressung
    • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
    • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
    • Cyber-Betrug