Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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Linux-Foundation LFCS : Linux Foundation Certified System Administrator exam Dumps

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Exam Number : LFCS
Exam Name : Linux Foundation Certified System Administrator
Vendor Name : Linux-Foundation
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LFCS exam Format | LFCS Course Contents | LFCS Course Outline | LFCS exam Syllabus | LFCS exam Objectives


The Linux Foundation Certified System Administrator (LFCS) certification is ideal for candidates early in their Linux system administration or open source career. The exam consists of performance-based items that simulate on-the-job tasks and scenarios faced by sysadmins in the real world. Obtaining certification allows individuals to validate their skills to prospective employers, which is particularly valuable if you have little on-the-job experience.

Domains & Competencies

The Linux Foundation worked with industry experts and the Linux kernel community to identify the core domains and the critical skills, knowledge and competencies applicable to each certification. Performance-based exams were then developed based on the competencies that were identified.

- Essential Commands – 25%

- Operation of Running Systems – 20%

- User and Group Management – 10%

- Networking – 12%

- Service Configuration – 20%

- Storage Management – 13%

Essential Commands – 25%

- Log into local & remote graphical and text mode consoles

- Search for files

- Evaluate and compare the basic file system features and options

- Compare and manipulate file content

- Use input-output redirection (e.g. >, >>, |, 2>)

- Analyze text using basic regular expressions

- Archive, backup, compress, unpack, and uncompress files

- Create, delete, copy, and move files and directories

- Create and manage hard and soft links

- List, set, and change standard file permissions

- Read, and use system documentation

- Manage access to the root account

Operation of Running Systems – 20%

- Boot, reboot, and shut down a system safely

- Boot or change system into different operating modes

- Install, configure and troubleshoot bootloaders

- Diagnose and manage processes

- Locate and analyze system log files

- Schedule tasks to run at a set date and time

- Verify completion of scheduled jobs

- Update software to provide required functionality and security

- Verify the integrity and availability of resources

- Verify the integrity and availability of key processes

- Change kernel runtime parameters, persistent and non-persistent

- Use scripting to automate system maintenance tasks

- Manage the startup process and services (In Services Configuration)

- List and identify SELinux/AppArmor file and process contexts

- Manage Software

- Identify the component of a Linux distribution that a file belongs to

User and Group Management – 10%

- Create, delete, and modify local user accounts

- Create, delete, and modify local groups and group memberships

- Manage system-wide environment profiles

- Manage template user environment

- Configure user resource limits

- Manage user privileges

- Configure PAM

Networking – 12%

- Configure networking and hostname resolution statically or dynamically

- Configure network services to start automatically at boot

- Implement packet filtering

- Start, stop, and check the status of network services

- Statically route IP traffic

- Synchronize time using other network peers

Service Configuration – 20%

- Configure a caching DNS server

- Maintain a DNS zone

- Configure email aliases

- Configure SSH servers and clients

- Restrict access to the HTTP proxy server

- Configure an IMAP and IMAPS service

- Query and modify the behavior of system services at various operating modes

- Configure an HTTP server

- Configure HTTP server log files

- Configure a database server

- Restrict access to a web page

- Manage and configure containers

- Manage and configure Virtual Machines

Storage Management – 13%

- List, create, delete, and modify physical storage partitions

- Manage and configure LVM storage

- Create and configure encrypted storage

- Configure systems to mount file systems at or during boot

- Configure and manage swap space

- Create and manage RAID devices

- Configure systems to mount file systems on demand

- Create, manage and diagnose advanced file system permissions

- Setup user and group disk quotas for filesystems

- Create and configure file systems

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Linux-Foundation System Practice Questions


3-D content leaders align under Linux Foundation JDF

Pixar, Adobe, Apple, Autodesk and Nvidia have worked with the Joint Development Foundation (JDF), an affiliate of the Linux Foundation, to now announce the Alliance for OpenUSD (AOUSD).

Presumably pronounced Ah-Oh-You-Ess-Dee (rather than “aouzed”) this alliance seeks to promote the standardisation, development, evolution and growth of Pixar’s Universal Scene Description technology.

Universal Scene Description technology? 

Yes, but this is not a method for describing movie scenes of any particular kind in a standardised way from a creative storytelling point (at least not in the first place) to specify that people go here, mountains go there and dogs go somewhere else… this is (as Nvidia describes it) ‘more than a file format’, it’s an open source 3D scene description used for 3D content creation and interchange among different tools. 

“As a result of its power and versatility, it’s being widely adopted, not only in the visual effects community, but also in architecture, design, robotics, manufacturing and other industries,” notes Nvidia. 

In terms of use, Universal Scene Description technology can also be said to be a framework that focuses on collaboration, non-destructive editing and enabling multiple views and opinions about graphics data.


The alliance seeks to standardise the 3D ecosystem by advancing the capabilities of Open Universal Scene Description (OpenUSD). By promoting greater interoperability of 3D tools and data, the alliance will enable developers and content creators to describe, compose and simulate large-scale 3D projects and build an ever-widening range of 3D-enabled products and services.

Created by Pixar Animation Studios, OpenUSD is a 3D scene description technology that offers interoperability across tools, data and workflows. Already known for its ability to collaboratively capture artistic expression and streamline cinematic content

production, OpenUSD’s power and flexibility make it an ideal content platform to embrace the needs of new industries and applications.

“Universal Scene Description was invented at Pixar and is the technological foundation of their state-of-the-art animation pipeline,” asserted Steve May, chief technology officer at Pixar and chairperson of AOUSD. 

May says that OpenUSD is based on years of research and application in Pixar filmmaking. 

“We open-sourced the project in 2016 and the influence of OpenUSD now expands beyond film, visual effects and animation and into other industries that increasingly rely on 3D data for media interchange. With the announcement of AOUSD, they signal the exciting next step: the continued evolution of OpenUSD as a technology and its position as an international standard,” he added.

Written specifications 

The alliance will develop written specifications detailing the features of OpenUSD. This will enable greater compatibility and wider adoption, integration and implementation and allows inclusion by other standards bodies into their specifications. 

The Linux Foundation’s JDF was chosen to house the project, as it has a track record in enabling open and efficient development of OpenUSD specifications, while providing a path to recognition through the International Organization for Standardization (ISO).

AOUSD will also provide the primary forum for the collaborative definition of enhancements to the technology by the greater industry. The alliance invites a broad range of companies and organisations to join and participate in shaping the future of OpenUSD.

“OpenUSD gives 3D developers, artists and designers the complete foundation to tackle large-scale industrial, digital content creation and simulation workloads with broad multi-app interoperability,” said Guy Martin, director of open source and standards at NVIDIA. “This alliance is an opportunity to accelerate OpenUSD collaboration globally by building formal standards across industries and initiatives to realise 3D worlds and industrial digitalisation.”

The Joint Development Foundation (JDF), part of the Linux Foundation Family, provides the corporate and legal infrastructure to enable organisations to develop technical specifications, standards, data sets and source code. 

Free image credits (below) – Wikipedia.

The Linux Foundation Announces Keynote Speakers for WasmCon 2023

No result found, try new keyword!SAN FRANCISCO, Aug. 16, 2023 /PRNewswire/ -- The Linux Foundation, the nonprofit organization enabling mass innovation through open source, today announced the keynote speakers for WasmCon, taking ...

The Linux Foundation Announces Keynote Speakers for Open Source Summit Europe 2023

No result found, try new keyword!SAN FRANCISCO, Aug. 10, 2023 /PRNewswire/ -- The Linux Foundation, the nonprofit organization enabling mass innovation through open source, today announced the keynote speakers for Open Source Summit ...

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Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

Höhere Gewalt

Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

Technisches Versagen

Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

Kriminelle Ursachen


Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

Physischer Angriff

Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.


Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:


  • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
  • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
  • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
  • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

  • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
  • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
  • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
  • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
  • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
  • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
  • Rechtsverteidigungskosten


  • Betriebsunterbrechung
  • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
  • Mehrkosten
  • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
  • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
  • Cyber-Erpressung
  • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
  • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
  • Cyber-Betrug