Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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LSAT test Format | LSAT Course Contents | LSAT Course Outline | LSAT test Syllabus | LSAT test Objectives


The LSAT (Law School Admission Test) is a standardized test required for admission in law schools in countries such as the US, Canada, Australia etc. It is offered 4 times in a year (6 times starting from 2018-19). The total duration of the test is 3 hours and 30 minutes excluding all breaks. The maximum score one can attain on the test is 180, and the average score is ~150. The basic cost of the test is $175, but there are other fees involved as well.

It is a paper-based test and contains 5 sections of 35 minutes each. The test is MCQ-based. One section is experimental and does not contribute to the final score of the candidate.

Logical Reasoning (2 sections): the section tests the candidates ability to analyze, think critically, and evaluate an argument on its objective merits.
Reading Comprehension (1 section): the section tests the ability to derive information from complex written text, make relevant connections and glean insights.
Analytical Reasoning (1 section): the section tests the ability to interpret the make-up of relationships and deriving logical reasoning about the structure at hand.
Another 35 minute writing section (unscored) is administered at the end of the test, which is sent to all the schools. A “good LSAT score” is dependent upon your target schools, and the top law schools have a steep demand in terms of the score (170+ out of 180).

LSAT Syllabus
The following broad question types are a part of the LSAT analytical/logical reasoning:
- must be true and main point questions
- conditional statements, analyzing arguments, additive inferences
- strengthen and weaken arguments
- linear and advanced linear games
- grouping principles and numerical distributions
- rare games types such as circular, pattern and mapping games
- case and effect reasoning
- necessary and sufficient assumptions
- flaws in reasoning, parallel reasoning
- resolving paradox

Analytical Reasoning
Analytical Reasoning aka logic games is one of the most hyped sections of the LSAT, and for a good reason. The section tests the ability to understand the logical structures and their interconnecting parts.

The candidate is expected to employ deductive reasoning from a set of principles that can describe relationships among things, people or circumstances. The skills that are tested on this section have strong parallels to the case where one needs to discover truth given a set of regulations, conditions or a contract.

The questions appear in sets, and each set is dependent on a passage. For example, a passage might describe 8 dignitaries that need to sit around a table, and the protocols are specified alongside regarding who can sit where.

The test taker needs to understand the logical implications of the presented information, and also accommodate possible changes through additional information (if any). You might be asked if a particular seating arrangement is possible, impossible neighbor-pairs etc.

The games will be a mix of different types – linear, grouping, a combination, or even something obscure like pattern/mapping etc. After enough practice sessions, youll likely discover that you are stronger in some logic games and weaker in others.

Plus, some games are inherently difficult than others – a basic linear game that is well-defined and balanced is far easier than a partially defined grouping game. You should attack the game types you are most comfortable with in order to gain momentum.

Moreover, try solving a game that has a larger number of questions associated with it: the return on your effort/time is proportionally higher. Diagramming skills come in handy when it comes to logic games.

Logical Reasoning
Logical Reasoning questions require you to read a passage and answer corresponding questions. The questions test the ability to critically analyze and understand arguments presented in everyday language.

The main skills that are tested relate to arriving at evidence-backed arguments, determining the effect of an evidence on an argument, reasoning by analogy, and identifying the flaws in a set of arguments. The source of the questions is scholarly publications and general interest newspapers/magazines/advertisements.

The arguments presented are modeled after the type of arguments one might encounter during legal reasoning. It is not assumed that a candidate knows about the logical terminology such as “ad hominem” or “syllogism”.

Both the logical reasoning sections have about 25 questions each. There are about 13 question types in total, and mostly 9-10 types occur with the most frequency. Moreover, the difficulty of the questions tends to increase as one progresses with the section.

A question can “appear” to be difficult based on your areas of strength/interests, or it can be inherently difficult. For instance, a simple conditional reasoning question is easier to tackle when compared to a long parallel reasoning question.

Solving the questions in this section over at least a couple of passes is a good idea: picking the “low-hanging fruits” first. Shorter questions tend to be simpler and take lesser time.

It is imperative to not get bogged down by any question — one cannot afford to waste too much time. This ensures that your time is spent on solving questions that have the highest chance of adding to your final score.

Reading Comprehension
Reading Comprehension contains 4 sets of studying questions, and you need to answer 5-8 questions based on the provided studying material. The main skill tested is the ability to derive insights from lengthy and often complex material. The practice of law requires a broad studying of pithy and complex texts and requires judgment when it comes to separating the wheat from the chaff.

3 of the 4 sets contain just a single passage. The single passages generally focus on the understanding of terms, holistic themes, authors tone/opinion, and function of a paragraph or the passage. One set contains 2 short passages that are related, called Comparative Reading.

The passages depend upon each other in different ways, and the candidate needs to identify the underlying relationship among the passages. The relationship between the passages can be spread across the whole spectrum- from the authors of the passages in overall agreement, to directly opposed arguments.

The passages will be from different areas: science, law, humanities, and interdisciplinary. Generally, the text is fairly abstruse, uses high-level vocabulary, and presents rhetoric in an advanced manner. Based on your interests and other factors, the passages can appear to be easy or difficult.

The inherent difficulty of the passage is hard to detect in the starting and might only present itself as you start answering questions. You should ideally start from the passage based on a topic/area you feel the most confident about as it will help in establishing momentum and building confidence.



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Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

Höhere Gewalt

Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

Technisches Versagen

Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

Kriminelle Ursachen

Hackerangriffe

Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

Physischer Angriff

Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.

Erpressung

Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:

Cyber-Kosten:

  • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
  • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
  • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
  • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

  • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
  • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
  • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
  • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
  • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
  • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
  • Rechtsverteidigungskosten

Cyber-Eigenschäden:

  • Betriebsunterbrechung
  • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
  • Mehrkosten
  • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
  • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
  • Cyber-Erpressung
  • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
  • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
  • Cyber-Betrug