Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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7 Vital Questions In Uncertain Times—And How To Answer Them

When panic subsides, opportunity resides.


Panic is a familiar—if unwelcome—emotion for many of us. It is also an unsustainable one. Like a state of excitement, it is too psychologically exhausting to maintain a sense of panic for long. What goes up must come down.

Great leaders intuit that panic is not a healthy foundation for decision-making. So they don’t participate in it. Instead, they make choices that are mindful of the medium to long-term impact on their organizations, or simply delay them for a calmer time. They remain grounded, knowing that what matters most is not what is happening now—but what happens next.

Unforeseen events have a habit of changing how they each relate to the world: their wants, needs, expectations, assumptions and frames of reference. In the light of a new dawn, people tend to seek different answers to the questions they have about their lives. In turn, this changes the demands they place on organizations—with corresponding impacts on markets, categories, competitive sets, products and services, and so on. And someone, something, somewhere, will emerge to satisfy that demand.

So, when panic subsides, opportunity resides. But how do you turn this to your advantage? What sort of questions should you be asking yourself and your team?

Here are seven that, in their practice, they have come to regard as non-negotiable when leading through change. If you can answer them well—which is to say, in a compelling, relevant and distinctive way—then you are all set for the road ahead. If you can’t, it’s time to stop panicking, and start planning.

Q1. Over the next 6 months, what does victory look like?

At the heart of this question is “what does it for us mean to win?” Both the timeframe and the terminology are key.

Entrepreneurial leaders in particular are often good at defining the next week and the next decade—but not the intervening period. But, during times of upheaval, the art of strategy is to plan for the medium term. 6 months is an ideal window—not so short as to feel reactive, not so long as to feel abstract or to create the potential for (further) unanticipated disruption.

How to answer it: in terms of what denotes “victory”, it is worth noting that, psychologically-speaking, they tend to aim for the bars that they set for ourselves. This means that setting them high is advisable. If you set your bar at survival, you may achieve that bar but are unlikely to exceed it by any significant margin. But if set your bar at thriving—to outperform every expectation that you would normally set for your organization—you might find that it maximises your chances of both survival and growth. So: recalibrate your ambitions, and work out what “thriving” means for you.

Q2. How do they expect customer wants and needs to change?

No-one can predict the future, and anyone who claims to be able to do so is a charlatan (hey, futurists). But, in the face of change, it is possible to generate sensible hypotheses about how you expect the nature of customer demand to change. Because demand drives economies, this is essential for any medium to long-range planning work.

How to answer it: start by consulting the history books. For example, major social, political and economic shocks tend to presage an increase in collectivism—which has interesting implications for businesses that service a world in which the individual has often been sovereign. What might this mean for your organization?

It is worth paying attention to your own history as well—which is to say, your own career history and the history of your business. How have you observed customer need changing before—and responded to it? Remember that all things are cyclical; today’s trends will likely have shown up in some shape or form in the past.

Anything new must also be authentic.

Getty Q3. Why is their offering still attractive and compelling in this new reality?

“Why bother?” is an uncommon question in business—and among the most useful. It can bring clarity to almost any situation, from the small (“why bother with this meeting?”) to the existential (“why bother being in business at all?”).

In light of the hypothetical shifts in demand that you have predicted, why do you expect your customers to bother with your offering?

How to answer it: write down a one-line justification, and review it honestly with colleagues and peers (preferably those with no dog in the fight). If the answer wouldn’t inspire an averagely sentient member of your target audience to reach for their wallet right there and then, it might be time for a rethink. Many value propositions fall at the “value” hurdle.

What’s more, note that any new offering must be authentic—which is to say: true to your business and your brand in the eyes of its audience. If the customer wouldn’t expect you to do it, then your go-t0-market strategy will be fraught with risk.

Q4. How would they describe their strategy to a 10-year-old?

Very few strategies are fully fit for purpose. A common reason for this is a lack of simplicity, which points to a lack of clarity in thinking and design.

How to answer it: get reductive. It might sound patronising to advocate explaining your strategy in words that a child can understand, but doing so will force clarity of communication. In turn, this will signpost where plans are woolly or flawed.

On a related note, avoiding business jargon is helpful for employee communication and motivation in general. Do you need to “optimize revenue flows via improved channel synergy,” for example, or just do a better job of selling to your audience, no matter when and where they shop? One of these statements is far more credible and emotionally engaging than the other (although a quick skim of many strategy presentations would indicate that they might disagree on which).

Q5. Do their people have the goods - both attitude and skill - to deliver their strategy?

Leaders—particularly entrepreneurial ones—often have a sixth sense about consumer demand and how to take advantage of it.

But these good intentions often collapse in execution because the organization hasn’t built the competencies, structures or processes to be able to keep the promises it’s making. Almost overnight, the business stops being good at delivering its core product or service and instead becomes mediocre at delivering a new one—a surefire recipe for poor performance.

Times of change also have a habit of upsetting people and draining their energy. Understand: however good your ideas might be, a team of people that is tired or jaded because of latest or historic experience will lack the resources to deliver anything new. Good strategy pays attention to such human factors when appraising feasibility.

How to answer it: go back to basics. Competency frameworks and employee engagement surveys often provide plenty of insights about how stable your foundations are.

Q6. What's the main thing that could go wrong over the next 6-12 months?

Success often relies on being able to anticipate failure. While crystal balls are once again in short supply, as you look to the near future it is possible to generate hypotheses about what might go wrong with your strategy. Perhaps you are exposed on a huge client relationship. Perhaps you have a track-record of burning cash on unsuccessful innovation. Perhaps your team aren’t able to cope with ambiguity, and end up falling into unnecessary conflict.

How to answer it: get ahead of the future. Perform a pre-mortem, and consider how the insights should influence your strategy.

Q7. Water flows around obstacles - what makes your business capable of adapting in this way?

Taoist philosophy suggests that nature has its own unique way of ensuring balance in all things—and that the art of successful living is not to resist occurrences, but instead to adapt to them like water, flowing effortlessly in keeping with the natural order.

Successful organizations behave like water—which is to say, they are almost endlessly adaptable. They don’t resist political, social, technological or economic change. Instead, they work with it, remaining open minded and flexible.

In your organization, the source of your adaptability might be cultural, structural or procedural—or (most likely) a combination of all of these elements. How are you building this capacity? What steps can you take over the next 6-12 months to foster it?

How to answer it: convene your senior team for an open discussion on organizational adaptability. (In 98% of firms, this will be the first time such a conversation has happened.) Map where you’re strong, and build from there.

These questions are not easy to answer well. But, in the face of significant change, it is essential to do so.

Start by getting your leadership team together to discuss them. Be on your guard for assumptions or groupthink. Push yourselves hard. Engage help where necessary.

Finally, when the going gets tough, remember that these seven questions—and the answers to them—are also building vital muscle memory. When the world changes again you will be better placed to handle it. And, looking back over the last twenty or so years, only one thing is for certain: constant change is the new normal.

Questions and answers from the ‘Car Doctor’

Q. What is the latest with “soy-based wires in cars” that I am hearing. I did a little research and read that a judge ruled in favor of the car makers (saying not their fault), that the squirrels/rodents etc. are an outside influence problem. What are consumers supposed to do? I am hearing stories of $600 repairs to $1,300 repairs for this wire chewing problem. The car makers are putting the same soy-based wires back in for replacement, so they are supposed keep going back to the dealer for $600 repair every 6 months? I read that soy is the cheaper option, or better for the planet (instead of petroleum) for the car makers. I am in the market for a new car and do not want to have to deal with this. It happened to a friend of mine. She is now looking up ways to keep squirrels off her driveway. She did research and saw that there is a special tape (like duct tape) that rodents do not like (coated with cayenne pepper or something). What is your take on this? How do they combat this problem?

A. There is lots of misinformation on soy-based wiring and at one time I too believed the soy coating also attracted rodents. After talking to experts, although the wiring insulation is soy based, it is not a “food” product, so it does not attract rodents. The traditional wiring was petroleum based and maybe it just did not taste good. Rodents chew through things to sharpen their teeth. Yes, soy-based products are better for the planet but not necessarily cheaper. As far as the capsicum-based tape is concerned, yes, the tape can work, but it can be time consuming and fairly expensive to install. As they continue to build on open space rodents will move closer to their cars. I have seen mice, chipmunks, rats and even an opossum build a nest under the hood of a truck. I had a guest on my radio program who lives out in California who has a very expensive BMW supercar that ended up with over $20,000 worth of damage due to rats. He ended up developing a car cover https://www.getcoverseal.com to solve the problem. It is a little awkward to use but it does work. You could also try deterrents that trick the rodents into thinking there is a predator nearby. Readers also tell me they have had some success with oil of spearmint pouches placed under the hood. Readers care to share your rodent story, email me, jpaul@aaanortheast.com

Q. They just bought a 2023 Sonata Hybrid. They love the car so far, but there are a couple of issues about the buying process that are causing unnecessary headaches. I would like to know what you think. The car was purchased less than a month ago with 68 miles on it. The issue is the Hyundai warranty start date keeps showing up four months earlier. The dealer said do not worry it will autocorrect, it did not. Then the dealer said they would deliver me a letter with the correction. That did not happen and what happens in nine years and 10 months if the dealer closes, and I need warranty work? The second issue, there is no spare tire, just a mobility kit. I have shopped around at a couple of tire stores, and no one seems to sell spare tires for this car. Should I just let it go or keep trying to procure a spare tire?

A. I would start by calling Hyundai customer relations (800 633-5151) and see what they have to say. To me it sounds like the dealer entered the car in service and then maybe the deal fell apart. Hyundai customer relations is the first place to start. Regarding the spare tire you may be able to find a universal spare tire. One company that readers have recommended is https://ezsparewheel.com, and checking online they do have a spare tire for your car. It should fit the car but may not fit in the floor storage so it will be taking up trunk space.

Q. I own a 2018 Fiat 500 POP which I bought new and now has 26,000 miles on it. Shortly after purchasing it, I noticed that on occasion, at start up, the odometer would start flashing and continue until I turned the car off. It would just occur sporadically (maybe one out of every five starts) and unrelated to anything else that was going on. The dealership worked on it numerous times, consulting with the manufacturer and eventually even replacing the dashboard and updating the software. Nothing worked. I have learned to live with it by checking it every time I start the car. When I see it happening, I immediately turn off the key and start it again and then it does not recur (ever) for that trip. But may happen after the next start. Are you familiar with this problem? Any suggestions?

A. Your description sounds like a poor connection or communication between modules. There are several computer modules that need to talk with each other and typically the one common denominator is the Bluetooth communication module that has failed. After doing a bit of research it seems as though it is a combination of a poorly designed part and moisture intrusion that causes the failure.

Got a car question, email the Car Doctor for a personal reply. jpaul@aaanortheast.com


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Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

Höhere Gewalt

Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

Technisches Versagen

Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

Kriminelle Ursachen


Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

Physischer Angriff

Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.


Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:


  • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
  • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
  • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
  • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

  • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
  • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
  • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
  • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
  • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
  • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
  • Rechtsverteidigungskosten


  • Betriebsunterbrechung
  • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
  • Mehrkosten
  • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
  • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
  • Cyber-Erpressung
  • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
  • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
  • Cyber-Betrug