Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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Exam Number : MB-340
Exam Name : Microsoft Dynamics 365 Commerce Functional Consultant
Vendor Name : Microsoft
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Exam Number: MB-340
Exam Name : Microsoft Dynamics 365 Commerce Functional Consultant

Exam TOPICS

Candidates for this exam set up and use the application functionality in Dynamics 365 Commerce and provide support for the application.
Candidates have a strong understanding of unified commerce business operations. They may have experience configuring, deploying, and maintaining Dynamics 365 Commerce.

Configure Dynamics 365 Commerce Headquarters (20-25%)
Configure products, prices, discounts, loyalty, and affiliations (20-25%)
Manage Point of Sales (POS) in Dynamics 365 Commerce (15-20%)
Configure and manage Dynamics 365 Commerce call centers (10-15%)
Manage e-commerce (15-20%)

Configure Dynamics 365 Commerce Headquarters (25-30%)
Configure prerequisites and commerce parameters
 create employee and customer address books
 configure and manage retail workers
 assign address books to customers, channels, and workers
 create email templates and email notification profiles
 configure organizational hierarchies and hierarchy purposes
 configure Commerce shared parameters
 configure company-specific Commerce parameters
Describe and configure additional functionality
 create and configure channel and sales order attributes
 configure commissions and sales representatives
 configure payment methods and card types
 configure and manage gift cards
 describe Omni-channel capabilities including payments, orders, and returns
 configure data distribution
 create info codes, sub-codes, and info code groups
 describe Dynamics 365 Fraud Protection purchase protection, loss prevention, and account protection
Manage statements
 describe advantages of using trickle feed-based posting
 validate retail transactions by using the transaction consistency checker
 configure and manage retail statement calculations and posting
 troubleshoot statement posting issues
Configure Distributed Order Management (DOM)
 configure fulfillment profiles
 configure cost components including shipping, handling, and packaging costs
 configure management rules and parameters
 monitor fulfillment plans and order exceptions
Configure order fulfillment
 configure modes of delivery including shipments, pick up, and carry out
 configure curbside customer order pickup
 configure charge codes, charge groups, and automatic charges
 configure and assign order fulfillment groups
Configure products, prices, discounts, loyalty, and affiliations (25-30%)
Configure products and merchandising
 configure product category hierarchies
 configure product attributes and attribute groups
 configure assortments and product catalogs
 manage product labels and shelf labels
 describe uses cases for recommendation types including product, personalized, Shop
similar looks, and Shop similar descriptions recommendations
 configure recommendations
 configure warranty settings
 configure inventory buffers and inventory levels
 configure products and variants including configuring barcodes
Manage pricing
 design and create price groups
 configure pricing priorities
 configure product pricing including smart rounding
 configure catalog pricing
 configure affiliation pricing
 configure category pricing rules
Manage discounts and promotions
 configure discount parameters
 configure channel or customer-specific discounts
 configure quantity, shipping, tender-based, and threshold-based discounts
 configure discount concurrency rules
 manage coupons
Manage customers, loyalty, and affiliations
 configure client books
 configure customer attributes
 configure customer affiliations
 configure loyalty programs, loyalty schemes, and reward points
 manage loyalty tier calculations and processing
Manage Point of Sale (POS) in Dynamics 365 Commerce (15-20%)
Configure retail stores
 create a retail store
 configure POS registers and devices
 configure retail profiles
 configure sales tax overrides
 configure Task Management lists and parameters
 define cash management processes
 define shifts and shift management processes
 configure channel return policies
 describe offline capabilities and limitations
Manage store inventory
 configure availability calculations for products
 manage inbound and outbound inventory operations
 process customer pick-up and shipment orders
 manage inventory processes including stock counts
 look up product inventory
 process serialized items
Perform POS operations
 perform sales and order processes
 perform end of day processes
 reconcile store cash
 monitor store productivity by using task management and reporting features
Configure and Manage Dynamics 365 Commerce call centers (10-15%)
Configure call centers
 create a call center
 configure and publish product catalogs
 create product catalog scripts
 configure fraud conditions, rules, and variables to trigger order holds
 configure fraud alerts
Configure continuity orders and installment billing
 set up continuity programs and parameters
 configure continuity order batch jobs
 manage continuity child orders
Manage call centers
 create, modify, and process sales orders
 process call center payments
 manage order holds
 create return merchandise authorizations (RMAs)
 process returns, exchanges, and replacements
Manage e-commerce (15-20%)
Configure an e-commerce channel
 create an online store
 configure an e-commerce site
 configure channel assignments for an e-commerce site
 configure ratings and reviews
Manage e-commerce content
 configure URLs and aliases
 configure product detail pages and category pages
 manage site themes, page fragments, templates, layouts, and pages
 upload and manage digital assets including videos and images
 set focal points and attribute values for media assets
 configure publish groups
Operate an e-commerce channel
 create e-commerce orders
 synchronize e-commerce orders
 moderate ratings and reviews
Configure business-to-business (B2B) e-commerce
 describe differences between B2B and business-to-consumer (B2C) solutions
 describe use cases for organizational modeling hierarchies
 manage business partners and business partner users
 configure product quantity limits



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Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

Höhere Gewalt

Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

Technisches Versagen

Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

Kriminelle Ursachen

Hackerangriffe

Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

Physischer Angriff

Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.

Erpressung

Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:

Cyber-Kosten:

  • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
  • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
  • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
  • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

  • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
  • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
  • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
  • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
  • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
  • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
  • Rechtsverteidigungskosten

Cyber-Eigenschäden:

  • Betriebsunterbrechung
  • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
  • Mehrkosten
  • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
  • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
  • Cyber-Erpressung
  • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
  • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
  • Cyber-Betrug