Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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Exam Number : MB-500
Exam Name : Microsoft Dynamics 365: Finance and Operations Apps Developer
Vendor Name : Microsoft
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EXAM NUMBER : MB-500

EXAM NAME : Microsoft Dynamics 365: Finance and Operations Apps Developer

Candidates for this exam are Developers who work with Finance and Operations apps in Microsoft Dynamics 365 to implement and extend applications to meet the requirements of the business. Candidates provide fully realized solutions by using standardized application coding patterns, extensible features, and external integrations.



Candidates are responsible for developing business logic by using X++, creating and modifying Finance and Operations reports and workspaces, customizing user interfaces, providing endpoints and APIs to support Power Platform apps and external systems, performing testing, monitoring performance, analyzing and manipulating data, creating technical designs and implementation details, and implementing permission policies and security requirements.



Candidates participate in the migration of data and objects from legacy and external systems, integration of Finance and Operations apps with other systems, implementation of application lifecycle management process, planning the functional design for solutions, and managing Finance and Operations environments by using Lifecycle Services (LCS).



Candidates should have a deep knowledge and experience using the underlying framework, data structures, and objects associated with the Finance and Operations solutions.



Candidates should have experience with products that include Visual Studio, Azure DevOps, LCS tools, or SQL Server Management Studio.

Candidates should have experience in developing code by using object-oriented programming languages, analyzing and manipulating data by using Transact-SQL code, and creating and running Windows PowerShell commands and scripts.



The content of this exam will be updated on April 2, 2021. Please obtain the exam skills outline below to see what will be changing.

Plan architecture and solution design (10-15%)

Apply developer tools (10-15%)

Design and develop AOT elements (20-25%)

Develop and test code (10-15%)

Implement reporting (10-15%)

Integrate and manage data solutions (10-15%)

Implement security and optimize performance (10-15%)



Plan architecture and solution design (10-15%)

Identify the major components of Dynamics 365 Finance and Dynamics 365 Supply Chain Management

 select application components and architecture based on business components

 identify architectural differences between the cloud and on-premises versions of Finance and Operations apps

 prepare and deploy the deployment package

 identify components of the application stack and map them to the standard models

 differentiate the purpose and interrelationships between packages, projects, models, and elements

Design and implement a user interface

 describe the Finance and Operations user interface layouts and components

 design the workspace and define navigation

 select page options

 identify filtering options

Implement Application Lifecycle Management (ALM)

 create extension models

 configure the DevOps source control process

 describe the capabilities of the Environment Monitoring Tool within Lifecycle Services (LCS)

 select the purpose and appropriate uses of LCS tools and components

 research and resolve issues using Issue Search

 identify activities that require asset libraries

Apply Developer Tools (10-15%)

Customize Finance and Operations apps by using Visual Studio

 design and build projects

 manage metadata using Application Explorer

 synchronize data dictionary changes with the application database

 create elements by using the Element Designer

Manage source code and artifacts by using version control

 create, check out, and check in code and artifacts

 compare code and resolve version conflicts

Implement Finance and Operations app framework functionality

 implement the SysOperation framework

 implement asynchronous framework

 implement workflow framework

 implement the unit test framework

 identify the need for and implement the Sandbox framework

Design and develop AOT Elements (20-25%)

Create forms

 a dd a new form to a project and apply a pattern (template)

 configure a data source for the form

 add a grid and grid fields and groups

 create and populate menu items

 test form functionality and data connections

 add a form extension to a project for selected standard forms

Create and extend tables

 add tables and table fields to a project

 populate table and field properties

 add a table extension to a project for a table

 add fields, field groups, relations, and indices

Create Extended Data Types (EDT) and enumerations

 add an EDT to a project and populate EDT properties

 add an enumeration to a project

 add or update enumeration elements

 add or update enumeration element properties

 add an extension of EDT and enumerations

Create classes and extend AOT elements

 add a new class to a project

 create a new class extension and add new methods

 add event handler methods to a class

Develop and test code (10-15%)

Develop X++ code

 identify and implement base types and operators

 implement common structured programming constructs of X++

 create, read, update, and delete (CRUD) data using embedded SQL code

 identify and implement global functions in X++

 ensure correct usage of Display Fields

 implement table and form methods

Develop object-oriented code

 implement X++ variable scoping

 implement inheritance and abstraction concept

 implement query objects and QueryBuilder

 implement attribute classes

 implement chain of command

Implement reporting (10-15%)

Describe the capabilities and limitations of reporting tools in Dynamics 365 FO

 create and modify report data sources and supporting classes

 implement reporting security requirements

 describe the report publishing process

 describe the capabilities of the Electronic reporting (ER) tool

Describe the differences between using Entity store and Bring your own database (BYOD) as reporting data stores.

Design, create, and revise Dynamics Reports

 create and modify reports in Finance and Operations apps that use SQL Server Reporting Services (SSRS)

 create and modify Finance and Operations apps reports by using Power BI

 create and modify Finance and Operations apps reports FO by using Microsoft Excel

Design, create, and revise Dynamics workspace

 design KPIs

 create drill-through workspace elements

 implement built-in charts, KPIs, aggregate measurement, aggregate dimension, and other reporting components

Integrate and manage data solutions (10-15%)

Identify data integration scenarios

 select appropriate data integration capabilities

 identify differences between synchronous vs. asynchronous scenarios

Implement data integration concepts and solutions

 develop a data entity in Visual Studio

 develop, import, and export composite data entities

 identify and manage unmapped fields in data entities

 consume external web services by using OData and RESTful APIs

 integrate Finance and Operations apps with Excel by using OData

 develop and integrate Power Automate and Power Apps

Implement data management

 import and export data using entities between Finance and Operations apps and other systems

 monitor the status and availability of entities

 enable Entity Change Tracking

 set up a data project and recurring data job

 design entity sequencing

 generate field mapping between source and target data structures

 develop data transformations

Implement security and optimize performance (10-15%)

Implement role-based security policies and requirements

 create or modify duties, privileges, and permissions

 enforce permissions policy

 implement record-level security by using Extensible Data Security (XDS)

Apply fundamental performance optimization techniques

 identify and apply caching mechanisms

 create or modify temp tables for optimization

 determine when to use set-based queries and row-based queries

 modify queries for optimization

 modify variable scope to optimize performance

 analyze and optimize concurrency

Optimize user interface performance

 diagnose and optimize client performance by using browser-based tools

 diagnose and optimize client performance by using Performance Timer



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Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

Höhere Gewalt

Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

Technisches Versagen

Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

Kriminelle Ursachen

Hackerangriffe

Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

Physischer Angriff

Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.

Erpressung

Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:

Cyber-Kosten:

  • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
  • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
  • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
  • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

  • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
  • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
  • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
  • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
  • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
  • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
  • Rechtsverteidigungskosten

Cyber-Eigenschäden:

  • Betriebsunterbrechung
  • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
  • Mehrkosten
  • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
  • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
  • Cyber-Erpressung
  • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
  • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
  • Cyber-Betrug