Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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Exam Number : MBLEX
Exam Name : Massage & Bodywork Licensing Exam
Vendor Name : FSMTB
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The FSMTB governs and administers the Massage & Bodywork Licensing test (MBLEx). It serves the massage therapy and regulatory communities as the national entry-level licensure examination. The MBLEx is currently utilized for licensure in 46 of 49 regulated jurisdictions. These include the District of Columbia and the territories of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands.

The MBLEx is administered in both English and Spanish by Pearson VUE, the global leader in electronic testing services, at high-security test centers located throughout all 50 states, the District of Columbia and the U.S. territories.

To ensure that the MBLEx reflects current practice, FSMTB conducts a Job Task Analysis (JTA) Survey every five to seven years. The JTA seeks input from massage and bodywork professionals across the United States. This data is then used to analyze and revise MBLEx content as deemed necessary by the profession, guided by psychometric professionals.

The Federation of State Massage Therapy Boards (FSMTB) conducted a Job Task Analysis (JTA) in 2017 to ensure that the Massage & Bodywork Licensing test (MBLEx) is assessing knowledge and skills relevant to entry-level competence. Thousands of massage and bodywork professionals participated in the JTA survey and a follow up analysis of the responses was reviewed by subject matter experts, psychometricians and FSMTB member board representatives. The FSMTB Board of Directors adopted the recommended test plan.

Content changes that will be implemented for all MBLEx administrations, effective July 1, 2018:

The section entitled Overview of Massage/Bodywork Modalities, History and Culture will no longer be a separate section. Overview of Massage/Bodywork Modalities will be reassigned as a subcategory under the section entitled Benefits and Physiological Effects of Techniques that Manipulate Soft Tissue; and History and Culture subcategories will no longer be tested.

The distribution of courses tested will be as follows:
Anatomy & Physiology changes from 12% to 11%
Kinesiology changes from 11% to 12%
Pathology, Contraindications, Areas of Caution, Special Population changes from 13% to 14%
Benefits and Physiological Effects of Techniques that Manipulate Soft Tissue changes from 14% to 15%
Client Assessment Reassessment & Treatment Planning remains at 17%
Ethics, Boundaries, Laws and Regulations changes from 15% to 16%
Guidelines for Professional Practice changes from 13% to 15%

ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY (11%)
A. System structure
• Circulation
• Digestive
• Endocrine
• Integumentary
• Lymphatic
• Muscular
• Nervous
• Reproduction
• Respiratory
• Skeletal
• Special Senses
• Urinary
B. System function
• Circulation
• Digestive
• Endocrine
• Integumentary
• Lymphatic
• Muscular
• Nervous
• Reproduction
• Respiratory
• Skeletal
• Special Senses
• Urinary
C. Tissue injury and repair
D. Concepts of energetic anatomy
KINESIOLOGY (12%)
A. Components and characteristics of muscles
B. Concepts of muscle contractions
C. Proprioceptors
D. Locations, attachments (origins, insertions), actions and fiber directions of muscles
E. Joint structure and function
F. Range of motion
• Active
• Passive
• Resistant
PATHOLOGY, CONTRAINDICATIONS, AREAS OF CAUTION, SPECIAL
POPULATIONS (14%)
A.Overview of Pathologies
B.Contraindications
• Site specific
• Pathology related
• Special populations
• Tools
• Special applications
C.Areas of caution
D.Special populations
E.Classes of medications
BENEFITS AND PHYSIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF TECHNIQUES THAT MANIPULATE SOFT TISSUE (15%)
A. Identification of the physiological effects of soft tissue manipulation
B. Psychological aspects and benefits of touch
C. Benefits of soft tissue manipulation for specific client populations
D. Soft tissue techniques
• Types of strokes
• Sequence of application
E. Hot/cold applications
F. Overview of massage/bodywork modalities
CLIENT ASSESSMENT, REASSESSMENT & TREATMENT PLANNING (17%)
A. Organization of a massage/bodywork session
B. Client consultation and evaluation
• Verbal intake
• Health history form
C. Written data collection
D. Visual exam
• General
• Postural
E. Palpation exam
F. Range of motion exam
G. Clinical reasoning
• Ability to rule out contraindications
• Client treatment goal setting
• Evaluation of response to previous treatment
• Formulation of treatment strategy
ETHICS, BOUNDARIES, LAWS, REGULATIONS (16%)
A. Ethical behavior
B. Professional boundaries
C. Code of ethics violations
D. The therapeutic relationship
E. Dual relationships
F. Sexual misconduct
G. Massage/bodywork-related laws and regulations
H. Scope of practice
I. Professional communication
J. Confidentiality
K. Principles
GUIDELINES FOR PROFESSIONAL PRACTICE (15%)
A. Proper and safe use of equipment and supplies
B. Therapist hygiene
C. Sanitation and cleanliness
D. Safety practices
• Facilities
• Therapist personal safety
• Client safety
E. Therapist care
• Body mechanics
• Protective gear (masks, gowns, gloves, etc)
• Self-care
• Injury prevention
F. Draping
• Safe and appropriate
• Communication
G. Business Practices
• Business planning
• Strategic planning • Office management
• Marketing
• Hiring/Interviewing
• Documentation and Records
- Client records
- Business records
H. Healthcare and business terminology



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Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

Höhere Gewalt

Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

Technisches Versagen

Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

Kriminelle Ursachen

Hackerangriffe

Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

Physischer Angriff

Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.

Erpressung

Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:

Cyber-Kosten:

  • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
  • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
  • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
  • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

  • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
  • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
  • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
  • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
  • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
  • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
  • Rechtsverteidigungskosten

Cyber-Eigenschäden:

  • Betriebsunterbrechung
  • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
  • Mehrkosten
  • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
  • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
  • Cyber-Erpressung
  • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
  • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
  • Cyber-Betrug