Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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Exam Number : MCIA-Level-1
Exam Name : MuleSoft Certified Integration Architect - Level 1
Vendor Name : Mulesoft
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MCIA-Level-1 exam Format | MCIA-Level-1 Course Contents | MCIA-Level-1 Course Outline | MCIA-Level-1 exam Syllabus | MCIA-Level-1 exam Objectives


• Format: Multiple-choice, closed book
• Length: 60 questions
• Duration: 120 minutes (2 hours)
• Pass score: 70%
• Language: English

A MuleSoft Certified Developer – Integration and API Associate (Mule 3) should be able to successfully work on basic Mule 3 projects with guidance and supervision. The MCD – Integration and API Associate (Mule 3) exam validates that a developer has the required knowledge and skills to design, build, test, debug, deploy, and manage basic APIs and integrations: moving from Anypoint Platform to Anypoint Studio and back. Certified candidates should be able to:
• Use MuleSoft-hosted Anypoint Platform to take a basic API through all the steps of its lifecycle: design, build, deploy, manage, and govern.
• Use Anypoint Studio to build, test, and debug basic integrations and API implementations.
• Connect to a range of resources — including databases, files, web services, SaaS applications, and JMS queues.
• Perform basic data transformations using DataWeave.
• Control message flow and handle errors.
• Process batch records.

Explaining application network basics Resources
• Explain MuleSofts proposal for closing the IT delivery gap.
• Describe the role and characteristics of the “modern API.”
• Describe the purpose and roles of a Center for Enablement (C4E).
• Define and describe the benefits of API-led connectivity and application networks.
• Define and correctly use the terms API, API implementation, API interface, API consumer, and API invocation.
• Describe the basics of the HTTP protocol and the characteristics of requests and responses.
• Describe the capabilities and high-level components of Anypoint Platform for the API lifecycle.
• DEV: FUN3 Module 1
• DEV: FUN3 Module 2
Designing and consuming APIs
• Describe the lifecycle of the “modern API.”
• Use RAML to define API resources, nested resources, and methods.
• Identify when and how to define query parameters vs URI parameters.
• Use RAML to define API parameters, requests, and responses.
• Use RAML to define reusable data types and format-independent examples.
• Read a RAML spec and formulate RESTful requests with query parameters and/or headers as appropriate.
• DEV: FUN3 Module 3
• DEV: DIY3 Practice 3-1 and 4-1
Accessing and modifying Mule messages
• Describe the Mule message data structure.
• Use transformers to set message payloads, message properties, and flow variables.
• Write MEL expressions to access and modify message payloads, message properties, and flow variables.
• Enrich Mule messages using the Message Enricher.
• DEV: FUN3 Module 6
• DEV: DIY3 Practice 6-1
Structuring Mule applications
• Parameterize an application using property placeholders.
• Define and reuse global configurations in an application.
• Break an application into multiple flows using private flows, subflows, and the Flow Reference component.
• Specify what data (payload, message properties, flow variables) is persisted between flows when a Flow Reference is used.
• Specify what data (payload, message properties, flow variables) is persisted between flows when a Mule message crosses a transport boundary.
• Specify what data (payload, message properties, flow variables) exists in a flow before and after a call in the middle of a flow to an external resource.
• DEV: FUN3 Module 7
• DEV: DIY3 Practice 7-1 and 7-2
Building API implementation interfaces
• Manually create a RESTful interface for a Mule application.
• Describe the features and benefits of APIkit.
• Use APIkit to create implementation flows from a RAML file.
• Describe how requests are routed through flows generated by APIkit.
• DEV: FUN3 Module 4
• DEV: DIY3 Practice 4-1
Routing messages
• Use the Choice router to route messages based on conditional logic.
• Use the Scatter-Gather router to multicast messages.
• Use Filters to filter Mule messages.
• Validate data using the Validation module.
• DEV: FUN3 Module 10
• DEV: DIY3 Practice 10-1 and 10-2
Handling errors
• Describe the default exception strategy in a Mule application.
• Define a custom global default exception strategy for an application and identify in what situations it will be used.
• Define exception strategies for flows.
• Combine multiple catch exception strategies in a choice exception strategy.
• DEV: FUN3 Module 9
• DEV: DIY3 Practice 9-1 and 9-2
Transforming data with DataWeave
• Write DataWeave scripts to convert JSON, XML, and Java data structures to different data structures and data types.
• Use DataWeave operators.
• Define and use custom data types.
• Apply correct DataWeave syntax to coerce data types.
• Apply correct DataWeave syntax to format strings, numbers, and dates.
• Call Mule flows from a DataWeave script.
• Call global MEL functions from a DataWeave script.
• DEV: FUN3 Module 11
• DEV: DIY3 Practice 11-1
Using Connectors
• Retrieve data from a Database using the Database connector.
• Retrieve data from a REST service using HTTP Request.
• Use a Web Service Consumer connector to consume SOAP web services.
• Use the Transform Message component to pass arguments to a SOAP web service.
• List, read, and write local files using the File connector.
• List, read, and write remote files using the FTP connector.
• Use the JMS connector to publish and listen for JMS messages.
• DEV: FUN3 Module 4
• DEV: FUN3 Module 8
• DEV: FUN3 Module 12
• DEV: DIY3 Practice 4-1, 8-1, 12-1, and 12-2
Processing records
• List and compare and contrast the methods for processing individual records in a collection.
• Explain how Mule messages are processed by the Foreach scope .
• Use the Foreach scope to process records.
• Explain how Mule messages are processed in a Batch job.
• Use a Batch element with Batch Steps, Batch Filters, and a Batch Commit to process records.
• Use the Poll component to trigger a flow.
• Describe the features, benefits, and process to use watermarking.
• Configure watermarks in the Poll scope.
• Persist data between flow executions using the Object Store.
• DEV: FUN3 Module 12
• DEV: FUN3 Module 13
• DEV: DIY3 Practice 13-1
Debugging and troubleshooting Mule applications
• Use breakpoints to inspect a Mule message during runtime.
• Install missing dependencies and drivers to a Mule project.
• Read and decipher Mule log error messages.
• DEV: FUN3 Module 6
• DEV: FUN3 all WTs
• DEV: DIY3 Practice 6-1
• DEV: DIY3 all exercises
Deploying and managing APIs and integrations
• Package Mule applications for deployment.
• Deploy applications to CloudHub.
• Use CloudHub properties to ensure deployment success.
• Create and deploy API proxies.
• Connect an API implementation to API Manager using autodiscovery.
• Use policies, including client ID enforcement, to secure an API.
• Create SLA tiers and apply SLA based policies



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Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

Höhere Gewalt

Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

Technisches Versagen

Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

Kriminelle Ursachen

Hackerangriffe

Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

Physischer Angriff

Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.

Erpressung

Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:

Cyber-Kosten:

  • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
  • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
  • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
  • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

  • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
  • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
  • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
  • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
  • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
  • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
  • Rechtsverteidigungskosten

Cyber-Eigenschäden:

  • Betriebsunterbrechung
  • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
  • Mehrkosten
  • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
  • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
  • Cyber-Erpressung
  • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
  • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
  • Cyber-Betrug