Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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Exam Number : MOVF
Exam Name : Management of Value Foundation
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MOVF exam Format | MOVF Course Contents | MOVF Course Outline | MOVF exam Syllabus | MOVF exam Objectives

EXAM NAME: Management of Value Foundation

40 minutes duration
Closed book
50 multiple-choice questions
50% pass mark

Delegates are introduced to the world of the Management of Value and to the overall structure of MOV.

What is value
What is MoV
Why it is needed
Its place in the Cabinet Office Best Practice Guidance
Its relationship to other management methods
The 7 MoV Principles

MOV operates within a universal set of principles that can be applied to any environment. These seven principles provide the framework of good practice upon which MOV is based and include:

Align with organisation's objectives
Focus on functions and required outcomes
Balance the variables to maximise value
Apply throughout the investment decision
Tailor to suit the subject
Learn from experience and Strengthen performance
Assign clear roles and responsibilities and build a supportive culture
The 7 MoV Processes

The seven MOV processes provide a clear plan for implementing the outputs and monitoring their effective delivery.

Frame the programme or project
Gather information
Analyse information
Process information
Evaluate and select
Develop Value Improving Proposals
Implement and share outputs
MoV Techniques

This part of the course covers the MoV specific techniques and common techniques that are frequently used with MoV.

Implementing MoV

The implementation, embedding and need for embedding MOV into an organisation is covered here and includes:

Planning MoV activities
Responding to external and internal factor.
Portfolio, Programme, and Project considerations
Operational considerations
Embedding MoV into an organisation
MOV Foundation Exam

All delegates will sit the MoV® Foundation examination, which consists of:

Key exam information:

Throughout the MOV Foundation course, delegates will be exposed to numerous examples of examination questions. They will undertake a number of exercises and 'question-and-answer' sessions that will help consolidate the learning, thereby ensuring that delegates are more than adequately prepared for the final examination.

MOV Practitioner Exam

The purpose of the Practitioner qualification is to confirm that you have achieved sufficient understanding of how to apply and tailor MoV in a scenario situation. The experience of the individual, the level of support available and the complexity of the situation to which MoV is to be applied will be factors that impact what the Practitioner can achieve.

PeopleCert exams take place remotely via PeopleCert Online Proctoring, and the afternoon of the third and last day of your course will continue with your learning until approximately 4.00pm. When booking your exam please ensure that it is for a time after the course has concluded and at a time convenient for you. You will be required to obtain and install ExamShield and conduct a compatibility test prior to sitting the exam.

Objective testing

8 questions per paper with 10 marks available per question - all question items are worth 1 mark, making the total number of marks available per paper 80

Duration 2 ½ hours
Open book exam - only the MOV manual is permitted to be used
50% pass mark

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Exin Management teaching


Project Management

Collat School of Business

710 13th St. South, Birmingham, AL 35233

(205) 934-8800

UAB is an Equal Opportunity/Affirmative Action Employer committed to fostering a diverse, equitable and family-friendly environment in which all faculty and staff can excel and achieve work/life balance irrespective of race, national origin, age, genetic or family medical history, gender, faith, gender identity and expression as well as sexual orientation. UAB also encourages applications from individuals with disabilities and veterans.

Collat School of Business

710 13th St. South, Birmingham, AL 35233

UAB is an Equal Opportunity/Affirmative Action Employer committed to fostering a diverse, equitable and family-friendly environment in which all faculty and staff can excel and achieve work/life balance irrespective of race, national origin, age, genetic or family medical history, gender, faith, gender identity and expression as well as sexual orientation. UAB also encourages applications from individuals with disabilities and veterans.

What Is Sport Management? Degrees, Specializations And Careers

Editorial Note: They earn a commission from partner links on Forbes Advisor. Commissions do not affect their editors' opinions or evaluations.

If you enjoy playing or coaching recreational sports, you may be considering a career in sport management. After all, the field is diverse and can be highly lucrative. But what is sport management, exactly? Keep studying to learn more about this multidisciplinary business field.

What Is Sport Management?

Sport management refers to the management of various business functions in sports and recreation organizations. Depending on their specific job title, sport management professionals might plan, direct, organize or budget within a sports-related organization.

Getting a job in sport management doesn’t necessarily mean signing on with a professional athletic league. Sports and recreational organizations, like college teams, stadiums, sports media firms and the Paralympics employ people with sport management skills.

A sport management professional typically has a bachelor’s degree at minimum. Leadership positions in sports and recreation usually require at least a bachelor of business administration.

Sport Management Degrees Bachelor of Science in Sport Management

An undergraduate sport management degree prepares students for entry-level positions in the industry. Some start with a four-year undergraduate program at a college or university. Others begin by completing a two-year associate degree at a community college before transferring to a four-year university.

Expect to cover a variety of courses related to business management in undergraduate sport management courses. You might study brand management, event planning, facility management and legal aspects of sports and athletics. A BS in sport management equips students to work in facility management or sporting goods sales. Such entry-level positions often serve as a springboard to more advanced career paths.

Bachelor of Business Administration in Sport Management

If you’re interested in sports leadership positions, consider pursuing a bachelor of business administration (BBA). This degree involves a business-intensive curriculum featuring management, finance, accounting and marketing courses.

BBA programs usually take three to four years to complete. Potential careers for BBA graduates include sport manager, athletic director, general manager, sports advertising sales manager and parks and recreation director.

MBA in Sport Management

MBA in sport management programs sharpen your business management skills through the lens of the sports and recreation industry. These degrees typically take two years to complete. Core coursework includes business-centric courses like finance, marketing, accounting, statistics and operations.

Sport management MBA programs offer a variety of industry-specific electives. These may include classes like coaching, sports media, sport psychology and international sports relations. Many programs also include internship opportunities for students to gain hands-on experience with athletic organizations.

Earning an MBA can open the door to higher-paying jobs in larger sports organizations. Sport management MBA graduates often find jobs with professional athletic leagues or sports marketing firms.

Ph.D. in Sport Management

If you’re interested in academia, consider pursuing a Ph.D. in sport management. People with sport management doctoral degrees often go on to launch careers as professors, researchers, urban developers and economists in the context of sports and recreation.

As a sport management Ph.D. candidate, you’ll develop an original doctoral dissertation. Throughout the program, you’ll generate research ideas, conduct relevant research and take supplemental coursework. Most Ph.D. candidates also serve as graduate student research assistants, providing professors with grading and instruction support.

During a doctoral program, your research could examine the intersection of sports and gender, for example. Other possible research areas include sports and their social impact or sports industry economics. Students are encouraged and expected to generate their own research ideas for original thesis development.

Sport Management Concentrations

Because sport management is a multidisciplinary field, many students pursue concentrations to deepen their expertise in a specific subtopic. If you’re inclined toward a certain aspect of the industry, consider finding a program that offers a concentration in that particular field. Below are a few examples of popular sport management concentrations.

Sports Law

The world of professional, amateur and recreational sports have many legal considerations. Sports lawyers help athletes, coaches, managers and organizations navigate those laws and, when possible, avoid costly litigation.

Some of the most common areas of sports law include:

  • Contract law. This area governs the contracts made between athletes, coaches and their respective teams. These contracts are most common in professional athletic leagues and involve millions of dollars. Sports lawyers draft these contracts and aid in their negotiation.
  • Trademark law. Sports teams are identified by their names, logos and sometimes slogans. Those assets need to be trademarked for teams to maintain rights and control over them. In this case, sports lawyers help teams file their trademarks and enforce the terms in the event of trademark violations.
  • Personal injury law. Athletes are prone to injury, both on and off the field. If an athlete (or another plaintiff, like a coach or spectator) files a legal claim after an injury, personal injury lawyers step in to facilitate the claims process. Furthermore, venues that host sporting events must ensure the space is safe to avoid personal injury liability. Personal injury law comes into play if a fan gets injured at a game due to neglected facility maintenance.
  • Sports Media

    Sports media refers to the broadcast and reporting of sporting events, teams and sports news. Jobs in the sports media field include print journalism, photography, broadcast reporting (TV and radio), sports information analysis and program production. Major employers in the sports media arena include the MLB Network, ESPN and NBC Sports Regional Networks.

    Event Management

    Sports event management involves planning, coordinating, organizing and leading events for sports organizations. Putting on sporting events at every level requires attention to detail and quick decision-making skills. Among other key responsibilities, event managers must manage budgets, negotiate with vendors and coordinate day-of logistics.

    Careers in Sport Management

    Below they explore some popular sport management careers. They sourced salary data from the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics and Payscale.

    Athletic Director

    Average Annual Salary: Around $66,000Job Description: Athletic directors liaise among schools’ athletes, coaches and academic departments. These professionals oversee the goals, budgets and operations of schools’ athletic departments. They also help hire coaching staff, maintain facilities and promote athletic programs.

    Facilities Director

    Median Annual Salary: $99,030Projected Job Growth (2022–2032): +5%Job Description: Facilities directors are responsible for the upkeep and maintenance of athletic facilities. They ensure the safety of all those playing on the field, court or other playing surfaces. Facilities directors should hold a postsecondary degree in sport management and be trained in CPR and first aid.

    Marketing Manager

    Median Annual Salary: $140,040Projected Job Growth (2022–2032): +7%Job Description: Sports marketing managers employ sales and marketing tactics to promote sports teams and their related organizations. They might also promote individual high-profile athletes.

    Frequently Asked Questions About Sport Management Is sport management in demand?

    Considering that ​​75% of Americans consider themselves sports fans, the sports industry is enjoying a positive growth outlook. As a result, growth rates for jobs including coaches, scouts, agents and business managers are on the rise.

    What does a person with a sport management degree do?

    Sport management degree-holders typically have various career options. Some might work directly with athletes as coaches, athletic directors or facilities directors. Others go the corporate route and become marketers, lawyers, data analysts or sports reporters.

    What jobs are the highest paid in sport management?

    Marketing managers have one of the highest-paying positions in the sport management industry, with the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reporting a median annual salary of $140,040 across sectors.

    Is it hard to get a job in sport management?

    Yes, especially for those lacking the proper education or industry connections. Holding a degree in sport management gives you a higher chance of standing out against the competition and creating a lucrative career in the industry.


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    Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

    Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

    Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

    Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

    Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

    Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

    Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

    Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

    Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

    Höhere Gewalt

    Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

    Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

    Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

    Technisches Versagen

    Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

    Kriminelle Ursachen


    Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

    Physischer Angriff

    Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.


    Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

    Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:


    • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
    • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
    • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
    • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

    Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

    • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
    • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
    • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
    • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
    • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
    • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
    • Rechtsverteidigungskosten


    • Betriebsunterbrechung
    • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
    • Mehrkosten
    • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
    • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
    • Cyber-Erpressung
    • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
    • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
    • Cyber-Betrug