Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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Exam Number : Mulesoft-CD
Exam Name : MuleSoft Certified Developer -Level 1 (MCD-Level1)
Vendor Name : MuleSoft
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Mulesoft-CD exam Format | Mulesoft-CD Course Contents | Mulesoft-CD Course Outline | Mulesoft-CD exam Syllabus | Mulesoft-CD exam Objectives


Format: Multiple-choice, closed book, proctored online or in a testing center

Length: 60 questions

Duration: 120 minutes (2 hours)

Pass score: 70%

Language: English

The exam can be taken a maximum of 5 times, with a 24 hour wait between each attempt.



Description

MuleSoft Certified Developer - Level 1 (Mule 4)A MuleSoft Certified Developer – Level 1 should be able to successfully work on basic Mule 4 projects with guidance and supervision. The MCD – Level 1 (Mule 4) exam validates that a developer has the required knowledge and skills to design, build, test and debug, deploy, and manage basic APIs and integrations: moving from Anypoint Platform to Anypoint Studio and back. S/he should be able to:

- Use MuleSoft-hosted Anypoint Platform to take a basic API through all the steps of its lifecycle: design, build, deploy, manage, and govern.

- Use Anypoint Studio to build, test, and debug basic integrations and API implementations.

- Connect to a range of resources including databases, files, web services, SaaS applications, and JMS queues.

- Perform basic data transformations using DataWeave 2.

- Control event flow and handle errors.

- Process batch records.



Explain MuleSofts proposal for closing the IT delivery gap

Describe the role and characteristics of the “modern API”

Describe the purpose and roles of a C4E

Define and describe the benefits of API-led connectivity and application networks

Define and correctly use the terms API, API implementation, API interface, API consumer, and API invocation

Describe the basics of the HTTP protocol and characteristics of requests and responses

Describe the capabilities and high-level components of Anypoint Platform for the API lifecycle

DEV:FUN4 Module 1

DEV:FUN4 Module 2

Designing and Consuming APIs

Describe the lifecycle of the “modern API”

Use RAML to define API resources, nested resources, and methods

Identify when and how to define query parameters vs URI parameters

Use RAML to define API parameters, requests, and responses

Use RAML to define reusable data types and format independent examples

Read a RAML spec and formulate RESTful requests with query parameters and/or headers as appropriate

DEV:FUN4 Module 3

DEV:DIY4 Practice 3-1 and 4-1

Accessing and Modifying Mule Events

Describe the Mule event data structure

Use transformers to set event payloads, attributes, and variables

Write DataWeave expressions to access and modify event payloads, attributes, and variables

Enrich Mule events using target parameters

DEV:FUN4 Module 6

DEV:DIY4 Practice 6-1, 7-1, and 7-2

Enriching Data with Target Parameters

Structuring Mule Applications

Parameterize an application using property placeholders

Define and reuse global configurations in an application

Break an application into multiple flows using private flows, subflows, and the Flow Reference component

Specify what data (payload, attributes, variables) is persisted between flows when a Flow Reference is used

Specify what data (payload, attributes, variables) is persisted between flows when a Mule event crosses a connection boundary

Specify what data (payload, attributes, variables) exists in a flow before and after a call in the middle of a flow to an external resource

DEV:FUN4 Module 7

DEV:DIY4 Practice 7-1 and 7-2

Building API Implementation Interfaces

Manually create a RESTful interface for a Mule application

Generate a REST Connector from a RAML specification

Describe the features and benefits of APIkit

Use APIkit to create implementation flows from a RAML file

Describe how requests are routed through flows generated by APIkit

DEV:FUN4 Module 4

DEV:FUN4 Module 8

DEV:DIY4 Practice 4-1

Routing Events

Use the Choice router to route events based on conditional logic

Use the Scatter-Gather router to multicast events

Validate data using the Validation module

DEV:FUN4 Module 9

DEV:DIY4 Practice 9-1

Handling Errors

Describe the default error handling in a Mule application

Define a custom global default error handler for an application and identify in what situations it will be used

Compare and contrast how the On Error Continue and On Error Propagate scopes work

Create one or more error handlers for a flow

Use the Try scope to specify error handlers for one or more event processors

Describe the data structure of the Mule Error object

Map errors to custom application errors

DEV:FUN4 Module 10

DEV:DIY4 Practice 10-1

Transforming Data with DataWeave

Write DataWeave scripts to convert JSON, XML, and Java data structures to different data structures and data types

Use DataWeave functions

Define and use DataWeave variables, functions, and modules

Define and use custom data types

Apply correct DataWeave syntax to coerce data types

Apply correct DataWeave syntax to format strings, numbers, and dates

Call Mule flows from a DataWeave script

DEV:FUN4 Module 11

DEV:DIY4 Practice 11-1

Using Connectors

Retrieve data from a Database using the Database connector

Create parameterized SQL queries for the Database connector

Retrieve data from a REST service using HTTP Request or a REST Connector

Use a Web Service Consumer connector to consume SOAP web services

Use the Transform Message component to pass arguments to a SOAP web service

List, read, and write local files using the File connector

List, read, and write remote files using the FTP connector

Use the JMS connector to publish and listen for JMS messages

DEV:FUN4 Module 4

DEV:FUN4 Module 8

DEV:FUN4 Module 12

DEV:DIY4 Practice 4-1, 8-1, 12-1, and 12-2

Processing Records

List and compare and contrast the methods for processing individual records in a collection

Explain how Mule events are processed by the For Each scope

Use the For Each scope to process records

Explain how Mule events are processed by the Batch Job scope

Use a Batch Job with Batch Steps and a Batch Aggregator to process records

Use the Scheduler component to trigger a flow

Use connector listeners to trigger flows

Describe the features, benefits, and process to use watermarking

Describe the features, benefits, and process to use automatic watermarking vs. manual watermarking

Use connectors with automatic watermarking capabilities

Persist data between flow executions using the Object Store

DEV:FUN4 Module 12

DEV:FUN4 Module 13

DEV:DIY4 Practice 13-1

Debugging and Troubleshooting Mule Applications

Use breakpoints to inspect a Mule event during runtime

Install missing Maven dependencies

Read and decipher Mule log error messages

DEV:FUN4 Module 6

DEV:FUN4 all WTs

DEV:DIY4 Practice 6-1 and Walkthrough

DEV:DIY4 all exercises

Deploying and Managing APIs and Integrations

Package Mule applications for deployment

Deploy applications to CloudHub

Use CloudHub properties to ensure deployment success

Create and deploy API proxies

Connect an API implementation to API Manager using autodiscovery

Use policies, including client ID enforcement, to secure an API

Create SLA tiers and apply SLA based policies

DEV:FUN4 Module 5

DEV:DIY4 Practice 5-1 and 5-2

Configuring API Autodiscovery in a Mule 4 Application



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Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

Höhere Gewalt

Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

Technisches Versagen

Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

Kriminelle Ursachen

Hackerangriffe

Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

Physischer Angriff

Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.

Erpressung

Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:

Cyber-Kosten:

  • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
  • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
  • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
  • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

  • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
  • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
  • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
  • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
  • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
  • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
  • Rechtsverteidigungskosten

Cyber-Eigenschäden:

  • Betriebsunterbrechung
  • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
  • Mehrkosten
  • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
  • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
  • Cyber-Erpressung
  • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
  • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
  • Cyber-Betrug