Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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Required Activity Areas:

The AIT Program should be based on the five domains of practice, which are covered in the various departments found in a long term care facility. The tool presents

the departments as modules and rotations; it is through these departments/modules
that the program should be designed, so that the individual AIT can meet an appropriate and tailored amount of time in each of the domains as appropriate. These modules include:

• Administration

• Human Resources

• Nursing

• Business Office/Financial Management

• Diet

• Rehabilitation

• Medical Records

• Activities

• Social Services/Admissions

• Housekeeping/Laundry

• Environmental Management/ Maintenance



A. Quality of Care/Nursing

1. Develop a rounding sheet with the administrator and director of nursing that is
resident- centered; initiate implementation.

2. Observe nurse peer review on administration of medications.

3. With director of nursing, ensure medications are not expired.

4. Develop resident satisfaction surveys and make recommendations for implementation as necessary.
B. Rehabilitation

1. Organize and implement a follow-up program for discharged residents
to the community.

2. Develop audit for equipment inventory and complete audit; report.

C. Medical/Resident Records

1. Conduct admission audit of current in-house resident population, analyze data
and report. Assist with recommendations, as needed.

2. Conduct audit of flu vaccination response variables, analyze data and report.
Assist with recommendations, as needed.

3. Conduct audit of admission and annual required vaccines, analyze data and
report. Assist with recommendations, as needed.

4. Conduct medical records audit with appropriate staff.

D. Activities

1. Develop and implement a volunteer program

2. Develop/enhance Life Enrichment/Person Centered Care program

a.Interview residents and families and analyze information to ensure that
desired activities are planned and implemented as necessary

b.Working with Directors of Activities and other personnel as needed, help
develop in-service for Life Enrichment/Person Centered Care; assist appropriate staff with delivering in-services.

E. Social Services/Admission

1. Conduct an audit of admissions documents (per regulations and organization
policy), analyze and report.

2. Complete an audit of resident preferences, such as time to eat, rise and retire,
bath/showers, time of therapy, etc. Make recommendations as necessary

3. Develop and implement an outreach program that communicates regularly with
residents and/or families post discharge.

F. Dietary

1. Develop a questionnaire for residents related to dietary satisfaction including
variables such as taste, temperature, timeliness, presentation, etc; implement,
analyze and report; make recommendations.

2. Meet with the dietician and dietary manager to learn how menus are developed,
followed, and implemented; conduct an audit to confirm residents are receiving
correct foods, drinks and adaptive devices.

3. Understand nutritionally compromised concerns and how weights are monitored.

4. Audit purchasing and storage of dietary supplies and food; report to dietary
manager and administrator.

5. Audit to ensure foods are served and maintained at proper temperatures and in
accordance with the Food Code.

G. Housekeeping/Laundry

1. Conduct weekly audits, evaluating such variables as dust, floors, toilet, showers
of designated public areas; track, trend and report accordingly.

2. Audit resident rooms for housekeeping variables;track, trend and report
accordingly.

3. Audit residents to determine if laundry is clean and received promptly.

4. Audit infection control, safety and cross contamination procedures and make
recommendations as necessary.

5. Follow the linen distribution system from soiled to clean and report accordingly.

6. Observe resident clothing management



II. Possible Activities/Assignments related to Domain 20: Human Resources

A. Conduct an employee file audit per regulations and organizational policy.

B. Collect annual turnover rates for last few years, and develop a strategic plan
with activities, timeframes, etc. for identified changes.

C. Develop an employee satisfaction questionnaire, administer it and analyze
data;develop a subsequent plan.

D. Develop, organize and implement several employee activities.

E. Track absentee information, such as shift, day of week, reason, frequency;

analyze and report the findings.

F. Audit external health care providers (e.g., physicians, dentists, podiatrists)
to determine current licenses, liability insurance, etc.; analyze and report the
findings.

G. Study and analyze recruiting plans/staffing patterns and offer ideas to
improve current processes to ensure that the needs of the residents cared
for are met.

H. Review and understand the facilitys employee handbook to ensure accuracy
and that all federal/state guidelines are followed and make recommendations
as necessary.

I. Review and evaluate payroll plans, compensation plans, and benefit packages

J. Participate in a complete employee hiring and orientation process ( interview,
background check, etc.).

K. Conduct a staff meeting and an in-service training program.

L. Participate in a disciplinary/grievance procedure and an employee
counseling session.

M. Understand and have knowledge of National Labor Relations Board (NRLB)
as it relates to the facility.

N. Review and evaluate the unemployment compensation record of the facility
and attend an unemployment compensation hearing as necessary.

O. Review and report on ways to encourage and support professional development of team members.



III.Possible Activities/Assignments related to Domain 30: Finance

A. Assist the administrator with all budget (capital, cash, operating, etc.) development and submission.

B. Understand and assist with accounts payable processing.

C. Analyze and understand how aged accounts work.

D. Understand the facilitys bad debt and write-off policy; determine avenues
for improvement.

E. Understand triple-check systems for private pay and all third party payors.

F. Describe and review regularly produced financial reports to determine if fiscal
issues have arisen and make recommendations as necessary

G. Review and describe the chart of accounts, bookkeeping procedures,
income and expense statements and balance sheets; make
recommendations as necessary.

H. Understand the financial audit process utilized by third party payors to ensure
billings are in accordance with services provided.

I. Analyze and understand third party payor cost reporting systems.



IV. Possible Activities/Assignments related to Domain 40: Environment

A. Audit preventative maintenance logs per regulations and company policy;track
and trend such variables as time of day, season, staff member, etc.

B. Audit resident rooms, utilizing audit tools to evaluate such items as electrical
outlet plates, call bells, water temperatures and beds; track, trend and report
accordingly.

C. Review emergency generator and life safety regulatory requirements according
to state, local, and federal laws specific to your building(s) and prepare a compliance report.Conduct audit of past year of the log; develop/revise preventative

maintenance log with maintenance supervisor.

D. Conduct an audit of the past years log; develop and/or revise preventative
maintenance logs with the maintenance supervisor.

E. Assist the administrator and maintenance supervisor with developing and
implementing an emergency plan.

F. Develop a rounding sheet with the administrator and maintenance supervisor
that is environmental and safety centered; initiate its implementation.

G. Audit Log Out/Tag Out procedures to ensure compliance.



V. Possible Activities/Assignments related to Domain 50: Management
& Leadership

A. Review policy and procedure manuals to determine if they are appropriate
and timely, per regulations and organization policy and make recommendations for change as necessary.

B. Develop and assist the administrator with an annual strategic planning
meeting.

C. Review current internal and external contracts and agreements for accuracy,
efficiency and timeliness; organize and make recommendations as necessary.

D. Review and become comfortable with federal regulations and state specific
regulations; assist with educating department leaders, if needed.

E. Assist with writing a Plan of Correction and/or identified regulatory violations.

F. Review and update the facilitys organizational chart and job descriptions.

G. Review short-term and long-term goals of the organization for appropriateness.

H. Study the bylaws/mission statement/vision of the governing body and how
decisions and policies are made within the organization. Analyze the authority
throughout the facility.

I. Plan and attend internal and external meetings and prepare reports for the
organization, as necessary.

J. Review the facility marketing plan and make recommendations for change as
necessary based upon facility dynamics and community needs.

K. Review and understand the facilitys media publicity efforts, including (but not
limited to) writing news releases, facility publications, newsletters, etc.

L. Organize and write a report to include competitive information, such as
description of services and amenities, survey history, CMS 5-Star rating and
community involvement.

M. Review the facilitys corporate compliance program to ensure all appropriate
rules and regulations are followed.

N. Review and describe how the facilitys risk management program minimizes
legal liability.

O. Review and analyze facilitys information management system, including
technology, to ensure safeguards are in place to provide resident confidentiality, data security, social media, cell phones, etc.

P. Review and analyze the facilitys quality improvement programs.

Q. Review the facilitys customer satisfaction program, including resident relations initiatives, reception/concierge duties and resident/family surveys.

R. Transitional Care: understanding the various regional lines of service and how
they relate, as well as initiatives to ensure continuous delivery of safe and
quality care as consumers transition between the different lines of service.



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Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

Höhere Gewalt

Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

Technisches Versagen

Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

Kriminelle Ursachen

Hackerangriffe

Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

Physischer Angriff

Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.

Erpressung

Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:

Cyber-Kosten:

  • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
  • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
  • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
  • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

  • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
  • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
  • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
  • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
  • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
  • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
  • Rechtsverteidigungskosten

Cyber-Eigenschäden:

  • Betriebsunterbrechung
  • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
  • Mehrkosten
  • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
  • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
  • Cyber-Erpressung
  • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
  • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
  • Cyber-Betrug