Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

Wo erhalte ich vollständige Informationen über NBSTSA-CST?

Nachfolgend finden Sie alle Details zu Übungstests, Dumps und aktuellen Fragen der NBSTSA-CST: Certified Surgical Technologist Prüfung.

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Exam Number : NBSTSA-CST
Exam Name : Certified Surgical Technologist
Vendor Name : NBSTSA
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NBSTSA-CST test Format | NBSTSA-CST Course Contents | NBSTSA-CST Course Outline | NBSTSA-CST test Syllabus | NBSTSA-CST test Objectives

The CST examination consists of 175 questions, 150 of which are scored. The 25 pretest items (unscored) are randomly distributed throughout the examination for the purpose of analysis and statistical evaluation. The passing score is the
minimum number of questions that must be answered correctly. Candidates should refer to nbstsa.org for the number of questions which must be answered correctly in order to obtain a passing score. Score reports are provided to all candidates who take the examination


A. Preoperative Preparation (18 items)

- Review surgeons preference card.

- Verify availability of surgery equipment (e.g., reserve equipment for surgery).

- Don personal protective equipment.

- Utilize preoperative documentation (e.g., informed consent, advanced directives, allergies, laboratory results).

- Consider patient needs (e.g., bariatrics, geriatrics, pediatrics, immunocompromised, patient allergies).

- Prepare the operating room environment (e.g., temperature, lights, suction, wiping down the room and furniture).

- Coordinate additional equipment (e.g., bovie pad, pneumatic tourniquet, sequential compression devices, thermoregulatory devices, positioning devices).

- Obtain instruments and supplies needed for surgery.

- Perform medical hand wash.

- Check package integrity of sterile supplies.

- Open sterile supplies/instruments while maintaining aseptic technique.

- Perform surgical scrub (e.g., initial, waterless).

- Don gown and gloves.

- Assemble and set up sterile instruments and supplies for surgical procedures.

- Transport the patient to and from operating room.

- Transfer patient to operating room table.

- Apply patient safety devices (e.g., bovie pad, safety strap, protective padding, x-ray safety).

- Apply patient monitoring devices as directed.

- Participate in positioning the patient.

- Prepare surgical site (e.g., hair removal, surgical preparation).

- Gown and glove sterile team members.

- Participate in draping the patient.

- Secure cords/tubing to drapes and apply light handles.

- Drape specialty equipment (e.g., c-arm, Da Vinci, microscope).

- Participate in Universal Protocol (Time Out).

B. Intraoperative Procedures (61 items)

- Maintain aseptic technique throughout the procedure.

- Follow Standard and Universal Precautions.

- Anticipate the steps of surgical procedures.

- Perform counts with circulator at appropriate intervals.

- Verify, receive, mix, and label all medications and solutions.

- Provide intraoperative assistance under the direction of the surgeon.

- Identify different types of operative incisions.

- Identify instruments by:

- function.

- application.

- classification.

- Assemble, test, operate, and disassemble specialty equipment:

- microscopes.

- computer navigation systems.

- thermal technology.

- laser technology (e.g., helium, argon, CO2 beam coagulators).

- ultrasound technology (e.g., harmonic scalpel, phacoemulsification).

- endoscopic technology.

- power equipment.

- Assemble and maintain retractors.

- Pass instruments and supplies.

- Identify appropriate usage of sutures/needles and stapling devices.

- Prepare, pass, and cut suture material as directed.

- Provide assistance with stapling devices.

- Differentiate among the various methods and applications of hemostasis (e.g., mechanical, thermal, chemical).

- Irrigate, suction, and sponge operative site.

- Monitor medication and solution use.

- Verify with surgeon the correct type and/or size of specialty specific implantable items.

- Prepare bone and tissue grafts (e.g., allograft, autograft, synthetic).

- Verify, prepare, and label specimen(s).

- Prepare drains, catheters, and tubing for insertion.

- Observe patients intraoperative status (e.g., monitor color of blood, blood loss, patient position).

- Perform appropriate actions during an emergency.

- Initiate preventative actions in potentially harmful situations.

- Connect and activate drains to suction apparatus.

- Prepare dressings and wound site.

- Assist in the application of casts, splints, braces, and similar devices.

C. Postoperative Procedures (12 items)

- Report medication and solution amount used.

- Participate in case debrief.

- Remove drapes and other equipment (e.g., suction, cautery, instrumentation,nondisposable items) from patient.

- Report abnormal postoperative findings (e.g., bleeding at surgical site,hematoma, rash).

- Dispose of contaminated waste and drapes after surgery incompliance with Standard Precautions.

- Transfer patient from operating table to stretcher.

- Dispose of contaminated sharps after surgery in compliance with Standard Precautions.

- Perform room clean up and restock supplies.


A. Administrative and Personnel (9 items)

- Revise surgeons preference card as necessary.

- Follow proper cost containment processes.

- Utilize computer technology for:

- surgeons preference cards

- interdepartmental communication

- continuing education.

- research.

- Follow hospital and national disaster plan protocol.

- Recognize safety and environmental hazards (e.g., fire, chemical spill, laser, smoke).

- Understand basic principles of electricity and electrical safety.

- Apply ethical and legal practices related to surgical patient care.

- Use interpersonal skills (e.g., listening, diplomacy, responsiveness) and group dynamics.

- Understand the importance of cultural diversity.

- Understand concepts of death and dying.

- Participate in organ and tissue procurement.

- Serve as preceptor to perioperative personnel.

B. Equipment Sterilization and Maintenance (17 items)

- Troubleshoot equipment malfunctions.

- Decontaminate and clean instruments and equipment.

- Inspect, test, and assemble instruments and equipment.

- Sterilize instruments for immediate use (e.g., short cycle).

- Package and sterilize instruments and equipment.


A. Anatomy and Physiology (20 items)

- Use appropriate medical terminology and abbreviations.

- Demonstrate knowledge of anatomical systems as they relate to the surgical procedure:

- cardiovascular.

- endocrine.

- gastrointestinal.

- genitourinary.

- integumentary.

- lymphatic.

- muscular.

- neurological.

- ophthalmic.

- otorhinolaryngology.

- peripheral vascular.

- pulmonary.

- reproductive.

- skeletal.

- Demonstrate knowledge of human physiology as they relate to the surgical procedure:

- cardiovascular.

- endocrine.

- gastrointestinal.

- genitourinary.

- integumentary.

- lymphatic.

- muscular.

- neurological.

- ophthalmic.

- otorhinolaryngology.

- peripheral vascular.

- pulmonary.

- reproductive.

- skeletal.

- Identify the following surgical pathologies:

- abnormal anatomy.

- disease processes.

- malignancies.

- traumatic injuries.

B. Microbiology (6 items)

- Apply principles of surgical microbiology to operative practice:

- classification and pathogenesis of microorganisms (e.g., cultures).

- infection control procedures (e.g., aseptic technique).

- principles of tissue handling (e.g., Halsted principles, tissue manipulation methods, traction/counter traction).

- stages of, and factors influencing wound healing (e.g., condition of patient, wound type).

- surgical wound classification.

- Identify and address factors that can influence an infectious process.

C. Surgical Pharmacology (7 items)

- Apply principles of surgical pharmacology to operative practice:

- anesthesia related agents and medications.

- blood and fluid replacement.

- complications from drug interactions (e.g., malignant hyperthermia).

- methods of anesthesia administration (e.g., general, local, block).

- types, uses, action, and interactions of drugs and solution (e.g., hemostaticagents, antibiotics, IV solutions).

- weights, measures, and conversions.

- Maintain awareness of maximum dosage.

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NBSTSA Technologist test format


PRC: 2,155 pass radiologic technologist exam; 67 pass x-ray technologist exam

No result found, try new keyword!MANILA, Philippines — The Professional Regulation Commission (PRC) Board has released the results of the December 2023 Radiologic Technologists Licensure test (RTLE) and X-Ray Technologists ...

Nursing test Pass Rates Appear to Be Rising. Why?

In January 2023, they reported on the reasons why nursing test pass rates fell in 2020 and 2021. In this report, they follow up on what has happened since.

During the first 2 years of the COVID-19 pandemic, the share of candidates who passed the national licensure test to work as a registered nurse fell sharply, from 88.2% to 82.5%, for first-time U.S.-educated candidates, with a smaller decline -- from 72.8% to 68.9% -- for all candidates, including internationally educated and repeat test-takers.

In 2022, pass rates continued to drop, averaging 79.9% (8 percentage points lower than in 2019) for first-time U.S.-educated candidates, and 63.4% for all candidates, the lowest point in the last decade.

In 2023, to most experts' surprise, that spiral appears to be turning around.

Things Are Looking Up

The reason for this reversal depends on whom you ask. Test developers have argued that rates improved due to radical transparency and massive outreach to stakeholders, while some online critics have suggested the test simply got easier. Other nurse educators agreed that the increased transparency and outreach impacted rates, but worry those same measures exacerbated a culture of "teaching to the test."

Understanding trends in test pass rates also requires context.

image Year-to-Date NCLEX Pass rates for 2023

The National Council of State Boards of Nursing (NCSBN) produces the test that aspiring nurses take to gain licensure: the National Council Licensure test (NCLEX). This test uses computerized adaptive testing, which means each test-taker gets virtually a different exam, the difficulty of which changes based on the response given.

Every 3 years, the NCSBN assesses the pass rates for the test and determines whether the current passing standard is appropriate. If the NCSBN's board of directors decides that the level of clinical judgment required of nurses in practice has increased, it can vote to raise the passing standard.

In December 2022, the NCSBN's board voted to keep the current passing standard on the NCLEX through March 31, 2026. Months later, on April 1, the NCSBN launched the Next Generation NCLEX (NGN), a new version of the NCLEX that aims to more effectively measure test-takers' clinical judgment.

Anytime a new test is introduced, pass rates tend to dip by a few percentage points in the first two to three quarters, explained Philip Dickison, PhD, RN, CEO of the NCSBN. He said he was naturally a bit concerned about a new test compounding the "drastic drop in the ability curve" seen during the pandemic, "but it was still the right thing to do."

Keith Rischer, PhD, RN, a nurse educator and owner of KeithRN, a nursing education company, recalled that the last major change to the NCLEX occurred when the passing standard was raised by 0.16 percentage points in 2012. Pass rates fell more than 7 percentage points -- from 90.34% for first-time candidates to 83.04% -- in a single year.

While the NCSBN kept the same passing standard in 2022, the stronger emphasis on clinical judgment and the "unique six-question case studies" in the NGN was predicted to increase the difficulty of the test in some respects.

"There was an anticipation that this was going to be another precipitous decline in NCLEX pass rates," Rischer said.

Post-Pandemic Rebound

However, that wasn't what happened. Instead, preliminary data showed a jump in pass rates, from 79.9% in 2022 to 88.6% in 2023, for all first-time U.S.-educated candidates. Importantly, the 2023 data exclude the fourth quarter of the calendar year, which typically has the lowest pass rate, experts noted.

Still, Dickison said he was "pretty amazed" at the speed of the recovery. Some viewed the change as a "huge increase," but he stressed that rates were starting from a low baseline following a 3-year period when other variables, namely pandemic-related disruptions, impacted pass rates.

"What I think you're seeing ... is that they have rebounded to pre-pandemic ability levels in their measurements," he said.

Dickison credits the rebound to NCSBN's decision to let educators, regulators, and -- controversially -- preparatory groups "under the hood" of the new test for several years before the NGN actually launched.

"The idea was to be as transparent as possible to all stakeholders," Dickison said. This meant leveraging opportunities at conferences and during webinars, and sharing what to expect of the new test -- from case studies and measurement models -- in newsletters. Dickison also credited educators for the big role they played in helping prepare students.

Rayna Letourneau, PhD, RN, executive director of the Florida Center for Nursing, said that while some nurse educators have noted the test has gotten "too easy," she suggested that perhaps the NGN is simply "a more logical way to measure what nursing students are being taught."

Similarly, she attributes the rise in pass rates to the focus on increased resources and preparation of candidates, including the implementation of "student success" coaching programs.

Teaching to the Test?

Rischer seemed to have a different view, pointing out that the NGN offers partial credit for certain "select-all-that-apply" multiple-choice questions. He said that he believes the real reason for improved pass rates is a shift in nursing education, though he added that his hypothesis is, at this point, "conjecture."

"What they have in the nursing literature for over almost 50 years ... is this widening gap between how nursing is taught in the university and college settings and how it's actually practiced at the bedside," he said. "We're not preparing their graduates for real-world practice realities."

Rischer said he grew even more concerned when he learned from online discussions that some professors were using NGN trial items to teach first-semester students.

"That's called teaching to the test," he argued. Instead of teaching students "alternative multiple-choice items, they need to be teaching their students the open-ended thinking of clinical practice."

For example, for a patient who had an appendectomy, Rischer said the appropriate steps are to take vital signs and conduct a head-to-toe exam.

"There is not a 'select-all-that apply' multiple-choice item on your forehead that I could say, 'You know what? This is the correct answer,'" he added, noting that the NCSBN "is part of the problem." Currently, the primary mechanism that state nursing boards use to measure a program's performance is their first-time pass rate on the NCLEX, which only "reinforc[es] this unhealthy culture of teaching to the test."

The end result of that, as studies have shown, is that "currently less than 10% [of new nurses] have what practice partners would say is entry-level clinical judgment competency," Rischer said, citing a 2021 study. "Complications develop when a nurse doesn't notice or recognize what's most important until it's too late. So ... clinical judgment competency is a big deal. And teaching to the test ... isn't going to solve that."

He said one solution is to move away from first-time test-taker metrics and potentially allow students to take the test twice and then average their score.

Another, more dramatic, change would be to include a skills test or what Rischer calls "demonstrable competencies" for essential skills involved in clinical decision making, which could be evaluated by an "objective observer."

"It will take more time. It will take more money, but this is something that they can and should be doing," he said.

'Not the Only Measurement'

For his part, Dickison noted that the NGN, like any exam, has limitations.

While it "measures your cognitive and your thinking ability, their test does not measure the affective domain, doesn't measure character," he said. For example, the test cannot assess a "less-than-acceptable social interaction" a student has with a professor, nor does the test know which student is always late to class.

"If they don't show up to class on time every day, that might be a [sign] that they're not going to show up to a patient when they need to," Dickison explained. "That's why you have a regulatory system. That's why they have an education [system] ... these all have to work together. If you don't pass the NCLEX, you don't go to work, but it is not the only measurement that tells us they have a good nurse."

  • Shannon Firth has been reporting on health policy as MedPage Today's Washington correspondent since 2014. She is also a member of the site's Enterprise & Investigative Reporting team. Follow

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    Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

    Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

    Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

    Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

    Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

    Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

    Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

    Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

    Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

    Höhere Gewalt

    Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

    Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

    Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

    Technisches Versagen

    Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

    Kriminelle Ursachen


    Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

    Physischer Angriff

    Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.


    Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

    Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:


    • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
    • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
    • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
    • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

    Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

    • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
    • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
    • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
    • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
    • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
    • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
    • Rechtsverteidigungskosten


    • Betriebsunterbrechung
    • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
    • Mehrkosten
    • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
    • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
    • Cyber-Erpressung
    • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
    • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
    • Cyber-Betrug