Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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Certification-Board NCE : National Counselor test Exam Dumps

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Exam Number : NCE
Exam Name : National Counselor Exam
Vendor Name : Certification-Board
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NCE test Format | NCE Course Contents | NCE Course Outline | NCE test Syllabus | NCE test Objectives


This handbook provides information about the examination and registration process for the National
Counselor Exam (NCE). It outlines the design and content of the examination and guides candidates
through the examination process, from registration through test-taking.



The National Board for Certified Counselors (NBCC) is internationally recognized as a leading provider of
national counselor certification. Additionally, 50 states, Puerto Rico, and the District of Columbia administer
NBCC examinations as part of their counselor credentialing requirements. Based on its reputation for
excellence in the examination field, NBCC has provided consultation services for examination and credential
development to many other organizations in the United States and abroad, including NBCCs affiliate the
Center for Credentialing & Education (CCE). NBCC has contracted with CCE to oversee the certification
examination process.



The examination is delivered in a pencil and paper format at more than 75 national sites and 350 campuses
located throughout the United States. NBCC has contracted with Pearson VUE to assist in the electronic
administration of the examination delivered either on college campuses or at Pearson VUE test centers. The
examination is administered twice a year, in April and October. The examination is usually held on the third
Saturday of the month.



You may postpone or defer your examination date to the next available administration without penalty as long
as you contact NBCC more than 30 days prior to the test date. If your request is less than 30 days prior to the
exam or if you do not take the test on your scheduled date, you will pay a $150 reregistration fee to take it
on the next administration date. If an emergency (illness, accident, death in the family, etc.) prevents you from
taking the test on your scheduled date, you may be eligible for a waiver of the reregistration fee, depending
on your specific circumstances.


The National Counselor Exam (NCE) is a 200-question, multiple- choice, nonsectioned examination.
The NCE represents each of the original eight CACREP (Council for Accreditation of Counseling & Related
Educational Programs) content areas, with question content also emerging from the five work behaviors
determined by NBCCs national job analysis. Thus, the content validity of the NCE is anchored on the five
empirically validated work behaviors determined to be most relevant for competent counseling practice and
the eight CACREP curriculum educational standards.
A different form (version) of the NCE is compiled for each administration of the examination.
Each forms questions, which are drawn from the item pool for the NCE, have undergone extensive review
and field-testing.

Although each form of the NCE contains different questions, the content areas and the respective numbers of
questions representing those areas are consistent. Within the set of 200 questions on each form of the NCE, 160
of the questions are counted for the purpose of determining whether you surpass the minimum criterion (i.e.,
“passing”) score for that form. Thus, the maximum possible score a respondent can achieve is 160.

The remaining 40 items are unscored field-test items. Field-test items are included on the exam to gather item
statistics to evaluate their performance for use on future exams.

The following is an outline of the eight CACREP domains on which the examination questions are based:

1. Human Growth and Development — Studies that provide an understanding of the nature and needs of
individuals at all developmental levels.

2. Social and Cultural Diversity — Studies that provide an understanding of issues and trends in a
multicultural and diverse society.

3. Counseling and Helping Relationships — Studies that provide an understanding of counseling and
consultation processes.

4. Group Counseling and Group Work — Studies that provide an understanding of group development,
dynamics, counseling theories, group counseling methods and skills, and other group work approaches.

5. Career Counseling — Studies that provide an understanding of career development.

6. Assessment and Testing — Studies that provide an understanding of individual and group approaches to
assessment and evaluation.

7. Research and Program Evaluation — Studies that provide an understanding of types of research methods,
basic statistics, and ethical and legal considerations in research.

8. Professional Counseling Orientation and Ethical Practice — Studies that provide an understanding of
all aspects of professional functioning, including history, roles, organizational structures, ethics, standards
and credentialing.

7
The following is an outline of the five work behavior domains derived from a job analysis of professional
counselors. The descriptions of the work behaviors are intended to be broad examples and are not exhaustive.

1. Fundamental Counseling Issues — Theory and application of counseling clients with conditions that
may be a focus of clinical attention, and clients with various disorders including but not limited to
neurocognitive, personality, anxiety and depressive disorders.

2. Counseling Process — Assessing a clients course of development or ones appropriateness for working
with a specific client. Conducting diagnostic interviews, distance counseling and school/community
outreach.

3. Diagnostic and Assessment Services — Assessing clients educational preparation and potential for harm
to self and others. Conducting biopsychosocial interviews, initial exams and custody evaluations.
4. Professional Practice — Advocating for client needs and the profession of counseling. Applying career
counseling interventions, current counseling and multicultural counseling models.

5. Professional Development, Supervision and Consultation — Communicating with credentialing boards
and consulting with the justice system, peers or other professionals, prescribers of medications, and
professional organizations.



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Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

Höhere Gewalt

Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

Technisches Versagen

Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

Kriminelle Ursachen

Hackerangriffe

Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

Physischer Angriff

Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.

Erpressung

Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:

Cyber-Kosten:

  • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
  • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
  • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
  • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

  • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
  • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
  • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
  • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
  • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
  • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
  • Rechtsverteidigungskosten

Cyber-Eigenschäden:

  • Betriebsunterbrechung
  • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
  • Mehrkosten
  • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
  • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
  • Cyber-Erpressung
  • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
  • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
  • Cyber-Betrug