Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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Exam Number : NCEES-FE
Exam Name : NCEES - FE Civil Engineering 2024
Vendor Name : NCEES
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NCEES-FE test Format | NCEES-FE Course Contents | NCEES-FE Course Outline | NCEES-FE test Syllabus | NCEES-FE test Objectives


The FE test includes 110-questions.

The test appointment time is 6 hours long and includes

Nondisclosure agreement (2 minutes)Tutorial (8 minutes)

Exam (5 hours and 20 minutes)Scheduled break (25 minutes)



The Fundamentals of Engineering (FE) test is generally your first step in the process to becoming a professional licensed engineer (P.E.). It is designed for latest graduates and students who are close to finishing an undergraduate engineering degree from an EAC/ABET-accredited program. The FE test is a computer-based test administered year-round at NCEES-approved Pearson VUE test centers.



Reviewing the FE test specifications, fees, and requirementsReading the reference materialsUnderstanding scoring and reportingViewing the most up-to-date FE test pass rates
A $175 test fee is payable directly to NCEES. Some licensing boards may require you to file a separate application and pay an application fee as part of the approval process to qualify you for a seat for an NCEES exam. Your licensing board may have additional requirements. Special accommodations are available for examinees who meet certain eligibility criteria and sufficiently document their request.



1. Mathematics

A. Analytic geometry

B. Calculus

C. Roots of equations

D. Vector analysis

2. Probability and Statistics

A. Measures of central tendencies and dispersions (e.g., mean, mode, standard deviation)

B. Estimation for a single mean (e.g., point, confidence intervals)

C. Regression and curve fitting

D. Expected value (weighted average) in decision making

3. Computational Tools

A. Spreadsheet computations

B. Structured programming (e.g., if-then, loops, macros)

4. Ethics and Professional Practice

A. Codes of ethics (professional and technical societies)

B. Professional liability

C. Licensure

D. Sustainability and sustainable design

E. Professional skills (e.g., public policy, management, and business)

F. Contracts and contract law

5. Engineering Economics

A. Discounted cash flow (e.g., equivalence, PW, equivalent annual worth, FW, rate of return)

B. Cost (e.g., incremental, average, sunk, estimating)

C. Analyses (e.g., breakeven, benefit-cost, life cycle)

D. Uncertainty (e.g., expected value and risk)

6. Statics

A. Resultants of force systems

B. Equivalent force systems

C. Equilibrium of rigid bodies

D. Frames and trusses

E. Centroid of area

F. Area moments of inertia

G. Static friction

7. Dynamics

A. Kinematics (e.g., particles and rigid bodies)

B. Mass moments of inertia

C. Force acceleration (e.g., particles and rigid bodies)

D. Impulse momentum (e.g., particles and rigid bodies)

E. Work, energy, and power (e.g., particles and rigid bodies)

8. Mechanics of Materials

A. Shear and moment diagrams

B. Stresses and strains (e.g., axial, torsion, bending, shear, thermal)

C. Deformations (e.g., axial, torsion, bending, thermal)

D. Combined stresses

E. Principal stresses

F. Mohr's circle

G. Column analysis (e.g., buckling, boundary conditions)

H. Composite sections

I. Elastic and plastic deformations

J. Stress-strain diagrams

9. Materials

A. Mix design (e.g., concrete and asphalt)

B. Test methods and specifications (e.g., steel, concrete, aggregates, asphalt, wood)

C. Physical and mechanical properties of concrete, ferrous and nonferrous metals, masonry, wood, engineered materials (e.g., FRP, laminated lumber, wood/plastic composites), and asphalt

10. Fluid Mechanics

A. Flow measurement

B. Fluid properties

C. Fluid statics

D. Energy, impulse, and momentum equations

11. Hydraulics and Hydrologic Systems

A. Basic hydrology (e.g., infiltration, rainfall, runoff, detention, flood flows, watersheds)

B. Basic hydraulics (e.g., Manning equation, Bernoulli theorem, open-channel flow, pipe flow)

C. Pumping systems (water and wastewater)

D. Water distribution systems

E. Reservoirs (e.g., dams, routing, spillways)

F. Groundwater (e.g., flow, wells, drawdown)

G. Storm sewer collection systems

12. Structural Analysis

A. Analysis of forces in statically determinant beams, trusses, and frames

B. Deflection of statically determinant beams, trusses, and frames

C. Structural determinacy and stability analysis of beams, trusses, and frames

D. Loads and load paths (e.g., dead, live, lateral, influence lines and moving loads, tributary areas)

E. Elementary statically indeterminate structures

13. Structural Design

A. Design of steel components (e.g., codes and design philosophies, beams, columns, beam-columns, tension members, connections)

B. Design of reinforced concrete components (e.g., codes and design philosophies, beams, slabs, columns, walls, footings)

14. Geotechnical Engineering

A. Geology

B. Index properties and soil classifications

C. Phase relations (air-water-solid)

D. Laboratory and field tests

E. Effective stress (buoyancy)

F. Stability of retaining walls (e.g., active pressure/passive pressure)

G. Shear strength

H. Bearing capacity (cohesive and noncohesive)

I. Foundation types (e.g., spread footings, deep foundations, wall footings, mats)

J. Consolidation and differential settlement

K. Seepage/flow nets

L. Slope stability (e.g., fills, embankments, cuts, dams)

M. Soil stabilization (e.g., chemical additives, geosynthetics)

N. Drainage systems

O. Erosion control

15. Transportation Engineering

A. Geometric design of streets and highways

B. Geometric design of intersections

C. Pavement system design (e.g., thickness, subgrade, drainage, rehabilitation)

D. Traffic safety

E. Traffic capacity

F. Traffic flow theory

G. Traffic control devices

H. Transportation planning (e.g., travel forecast modeling)

16. Environmental Engineering

A. Water quality (ground and surface)

B. Basic tests (e.g., water, wastewater, air)

C. Environmental regulations

D. Water supply and treatment

E. Wastewater collection and treatment

17. Construction

A. Construction documents

B. Procurement methods (e.g., competitive bid, qualifications-based)

C. Project delivery methods (e.g., design-bid-build, design build, construction management, multiple prime)

D. Construction operations and methods (e.g., lifting, rigging, dewatering and pumping, equipment production, productivity analysis and improvement, temporary erosion control)

E. Project scheduling (e.g., CPM, allocation of resources)

F. Project management (e.g., owner/contractor/client relations)

G. Construction safety

H. Construction estimating

18. Surveying

A. Angles, distances, and trigonometry

B. Area computations

C. Earthwork and volume computations

D. Closure

E. Coordinate systems (e.g., state plane, latitude/longitude)

F. Leveling (e.g., differential, elevations, percent grades)



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Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

Höhere Gewalt

Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

Technisches Versagen

Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

Kriminelle Ursachen

Hackerangriffe

Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

Physischer Angriff

Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.

Erpressung

Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:

Cyber-Kosten:

  • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
  • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
  • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
  • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

  • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
  • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
  • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
  • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
  • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
  • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
  • Rechtsverteidigungskosten

Cyber-Eigenschäden:

  • Betriebsunterbrechung
  • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
  • Mehrkosten
  • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
  • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
  • Cyber-Erpressung
  • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
  • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
  • Cyber-Betrug