Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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Exam : NE-BC

Exam Name : ANCC Nurse Executive Certification

Number of Questions : 175

Scored Questions : 150

Unscored Questions : 25



Category Domains of Practice No. of Questions Percent

I Structures and Processes 27 18%

II Professional Practice 55 37%

III Leadership 33 22%

IV Knowledge Management 35 23%

Total 150 100%



There are 175 questions on this examination. Of these, 150 are scored questions and 25 are pretest questions that are not scored. Pretest questions are used to determine how well these questions will perform before they are used on the scored portion of the examination. The pretest questions cannot be distinguished from those that will be scored, so it is important for a candidate to answer all questions. A candidate's score, however, is based solely on the 150 scored questions. Performance on pretest questions does not affect a candidate's score.



I. Structures and Processes (18%)

A. Human Capital Management

Knowledge of:

1. Federal and state laws (e.g., Family and Medical Leave Act [FMLA], American with Disabilities Act [ADA], Fair Labor Standards Act [FLSA], wage and hour laws, equal employment opportunities, Occupational Safety and Health Administration [OSHA],

workers compensation)

2. Labor relations (e.g., collective bargaining, contract negotiations, grievances and arbitrations, National Labor Relations Board [NLRB])

3. Resource utilization (e.g., cross training, job descriptions )

4. Principles associated with human resources (e.g., employee assistance and counseling, compensation, benefits, coaching, performance management)

5. Organizational culture (e.g., just culture, transparency)

6. Organizational structure (e.g., chain of command, organizational chart, span of control)

Skills in:

7. Participating in developing and modifying administrative policies and procedures

8. Implementing and enforcing administrative policies and procedures (e.g., monitoring compliance)

9. Providing feedback on effectiveness of administrative policies and procedures

10. Evaluating the effectiveness of roles based on changing needs in the health care environment (e.g., new or expanded job descriptions, professional development)

B. Financial Management

Knowledge of:

1. Basic financial and budgeting principles (e.g., revenue cycle, supply and labor expenses, productivity, depreciation, return on investment [ROI], cost-benefit analysis)

2. Reimbursement methods (e.g., payor systems, pay for performance, payment bundling, value-based purchasing)

3. Contractual agreements (e.g., vendors, materials, staffing)

4. Principles of staffing workload (e.g., full-time equivalents [FTE], hours per patient day, skill mix)

Skills in:

5. Developing a budget (e.g., operational, capital)

6. Analyzing variances and managing a budget (e.g., operational, capital)

7. Efficient resource utilization (e.g., contractual agreements, outsourcing)

8. Determining appropriate staffing workload

C. Health and Public Policy

Knowledge of:

1. Legal issues (e.g., fraud, whistle-blowing, the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act [HIPAA], corporate compliance, electronic access and security, harassment, malpractice, negligence)

2. Consumer-driven health care (e.g., public reporting, Community Health Needs Assessment [CHNA], Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems [HCAHPS], Healthgrades)

3. Emergency planning and response

4. Planning and responding to internal and external disasters

5. Planning and responding to health and public policy issues

6. Assessing, addressing, and preventing legal issues (e.g., violations, fraud, whistleblowing, the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act [HIPAA], corporate compliance, electronic access and security, harassment)



II. Professional Practice (37%)

A. Care Management/Delivery

Knowledge of:

1. Health care delivery models and settings (e.g., accountable care organization [ACO], patient-centered medical home [PCMH], nurse-led clinic, telehealth, e-health, inpatient, ambulatory care, home health, rehabilitation, etc.)

2. Laws, regulations, and accrediting bodies (e.g., The Joint Commission, Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, Nurse Practice Act)

3. Standards of nursing practice (e.g., clinical practice guidelines, clinical pathways, ANA Scope and Standards of Practice, Nurse Practice Act)

Skills in:

4. Establishing staffing models (e.g., primary care nursing, team nursing, nurse-patient ratios, skill mix, acuity)

5. Designing workflows based on care delivery model and population served (e.g., patient centered medical home [PCMH], interdisciplinary team, case management, disease management, throughput, staffing assignment and scheduling)

6. Developing policies and procedures that ensure regulatory compliance with professional standards and organizational integrity

B. Professional Practice Environment and Models

Knowledge of:

1. Professional practice models

2. Role delineation (e.g., credentialing, privileging, certification)

3. Professional practice standards (e.g., ANA Scope and Standards of Practice, Nurses Bill of Rights, Nurse Practice Act)

4. Employee performance feedback (e.g., coaching, performance appraisal, Just Culture)

Skills in:

5. Developing clinical staff (e.g., orientation, continuing education, competency validation, performance appraisal, peer review, mentoring, planning, lifelong learning)

6. Creating a professional environment for empowered decision making (e.g., shared governance, staff accountability, critical thinking, civility)

7. Recruiting, recognizing, and retaining staff

8. Providing internal and external customer service (including service recovery)

9. Creating a vision for professional nursing practice that promotes patient and family centered care

C. Communication

Knowledge of:

1. Communication principles (e.g., active listening, reflective communication, two-way communication, interviewing)

2. Communication styles (e.g., persuasive, assertive, passive, aggressive, passiveaggressive)

3. Negotiation concepts and strategies (e.g., compromising, collaborating, win-win)

4. Communication processes that support safe patient care (e.g., documentation, handoffs or hand-overs, bedside reporting, incident reporting, reporting sentinel events)

Skills in:

5. Communicating using verbal (e.g., oral and written) and nonverbal methods (e.g., body language, eye contact, active listening)

6. Facilitating collaboration to achieve optimal outcomes (e.g., team building, group dynamics, leveraging diversity)

7. Selecting the appropriate communication method for the audience and situation (e.g., email, role playing, presentation, reports, staff meeting, board meeting, one-on-one conversation, patient/family council, consumer feedback)

8. Conflict management



III. Leadership (22%)

A. Leadership Effectiveness

Knowledge of:

1. Key elements of a healthy work environment

2. Leadership concepts, principles, and styles (e.g., pervasive leadership, servant leadership, situational leadership, appreciative inquiry, culture of transparency, change management theories)

3. Coaching, mentoring, and precepting

4. Emotional intelligence

5. Sources of influence and power

Skills in:

6. Self reflection and personal leadership evaluation

7. Integrating diversity and sensitivity into the work environment

8. Change management

9. Building effective relationships through listening, reflecting, presence, communication, and networking

10. Succession planning

11. Creating an environment to engage and empower employees

B. Strategic Visioning and Planning

Knowledge of:

1. Strategic planning principles (e.g., alignment of nursings strategic plan with the organizational plan, SWOT analysis, components of strategic planning)

2. New program development (e.g., proposals, pro forma, business plans, marketing)

3. Trends that effect nursing practice and the healthcare environment

4. Communicating and building consensus and support for the strategic plan

5. Establishing baselines for processes (i.e., measuring current performance)

6. Evaluating processes and outcome measures over time

7. Project management to support/achieve the strategic plan (e.g., planning, implementing, and monitoring action plans)

C. Ethics and Advocacy

Knowledge of:

1. Ethical principles

2. Business ethics (e.g., corporate compliance, privacy)

3. ANAs Code of Ethics

4. Patients Bill of Rights

Skills in:

5. Advocating for patients (e.g., patient rights, access, and safety)

6. Advocating for staff (e.g., healthy work environment, equipment, staffing)

7. Advocating for the nursing profession (e.g., professional organizations, promoting education, certification, legislative influence)



IV. Knowledge Management (23%)

A. Quality Monitoring and Improvement

Knowledge of:

1. Systems theory

2. Continuous performance improvement (The Plan-Do-Study-Act [PDSA] Cycle, Lean, root cause analysis, tracer methodology)

3. Process and outcome measures (e.g., clinical, financial, safety, patient satisfaction, employee satisfaction)

4. Culture of safety (e.g., risk management, employee engagement, employee safety technologies [patient lifts], patient safety technologies [bar coding])

Skills in:

5. Creating a culture of continuous performance improvement

6. Translating data into information (including use of internal and external benchmarks), and disseminating it at various levels within the organization

7. Evaluating and prioritizing outcomes of care delivery (e.g., nurse sensitive indicators, ORYX indicators, National Patient Safety Goals, core measures)

8. Selecting the appropriate continuous performance improvement technique

9. Action planning to address identified quality issues

B. Evidence-based Practice and Research

Knowledge of:

1. Institutional Review Board (IRB) requirements (e.g., protection of human research subjects)

2. Research and evidence-based practice techniques (e.g., literature review, developing research questions, study methods and design, data management, levels of evidence)

3. Distinguish between performance improvement, evidence-based practice, and research

4. Creating a culture and advocating for resources that support research and scholarly inquiry (e.g., journal club, grant writing, research councils, research participation)

5. Communicating research and evidence-based findings to internal and external stakeholders

6. Incorporating evidence into policies, standards, procedures and guidelines

7. Evaluating and incorporating new knowledge and published research findings into practice

C. Innovation

Knowledge of:

1. Clinical practice innovation

2. Leadership practice innovation

Skills in:

3. Creating a culture that values, encourages, and recognizes new and innovative ideas that benefit the patient, family, organization, or community

4. Developing a framework for implementing innovations (e.g., small tests of change, pilot studies)

5. Leveraging diversity to encourage new and innovative ideas or new patterns of thinking

6. Evaluating and applying technology to support innovation



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Medical Executive real questions

 

Questions about new health AI rules

12/22/2023 10:20 AM EST

*/ ]]>

PROGRAMMING NOTE: We’ll be off next week for the holidays but back to their normal schedule on Tuesday, Jan. 2.

With Megan R. Wilson

Driving the Day

AI REG REACTION — HHS has new rules set to take effect in 2025 mandating artificial intelligence developers reveal more about how their algorithms work, Ben reports.

There’s support in the industry, but Pulse also heard skepticism about how effective the rules might be and questions about liability and scope.

The backstory: The Office of the National Coordinator for Health IT unveiled sweeping rules last week for AI used in most hospitals and doctor’s offices. In short, the ONC regulations will require software developers to provide more data to customers to help providers determine whether AI products are “fair, appropriate, valid, effective and safe.”

The reaction: Major groups including the Coalition for Health AI — with members including Google, Microsoft and Duke Health — praised the rules.

“Putting some standards in place is really important,” Michael Pencina of Duke AI Health and the coalition’s co-founder told Pulse. “They found the right balance, for the most part, about putting things forward but not being overly prescriptive.”

Agency interaction: Still, there are questions about how ONC and the FDA, which also regulates AI-enabled medical devices, will work together. Cybil Roehrenbeck, executive director of the AI Healthcare Coalition, told Pulse that she wished ONC would treat products already regulated by the FDA differently.

The FDA’s scrutiny should count for something, Roehrenbeck said.

ONC said in its rule that it worked with the FDA to align regulations to reduce the compliance burden for AI developers covered by both agencies’ rules.

Liability: Roehrenbeck said that the ONC rules’ reliance on individual clinicians to make calls about AI’s trustworthiness also raises liability concerns. ONC said those are outside of the scope of its rule.

“If a medical device fails, they know how to move through that process,” Andrew Tomlinson, director of regulatory affairs at the American Health Information Management Association, told Pulse. “We need to have that same process for AI.”

And Roehrenbeck said she’s gotten several questions about what algorithms the rules apply to, and that she’s hopeful for more clarity.

The agency said the rule has a broad scope, covering models not directly involved in clinical decision-making that can affect care delivery, like those aiding supply chains.

An ONC spokesperson said the agency appreciates the “robust public feedback” and welcomes more of it.

WELCOME TO THEIR LAST EDITION OF PULSE FOR 2023. Thanks for your readership, feedback, and tips all year! We’ll be back in 2024. Please keep sending your tips, scoops and feedback to [email protected] and [email protected] and follow along @ChelseaCirruzzo and @_BenLeonard _.

TODAY ON THEIR PULSE CHECK PODCAST, host Chelsea Cirruzzo talks with POLITICO health care reporter Daniel Payne about the ways artificial intelligence is already used across the medical landscape and how regulators are responding.

Lobby Watch

GRAIL LOBBIES UP — Cancer diagnostics company Grail added to its lobbying roster in Washington, hiring high-powered lobbying firms BGR Group and Williams and Jensen to work on issues including Medicare coverage for multi-cancer detection tests, Megan reports.

At BGR Group, Grail has former top health aide to ousted Speaker Kevin McCarthy (R-Calif.) Ryan Long in its corner. He is giving both “strategic counsel” to the company and advocating on issues related to oncology and multi-cancer diagnostics and screening, according to disclosures.

Long, who left Capitol Hill in October, has a one-year cooling off period during which he cannot lobby any members or staffers in leadership offices — but confirmed he is free to lobby the rest of the House and Senate, in addition to the Biden administration.

Alec Aramanda, who most recently served as the Medicare staffer for Republicans on the House Energy and Commerce Committee, is among the lobbyists on the Williams and Jensen contract. Disclosure forms say that the firm will work on a pair of bills that would allow Medicare to cover the tests Grail produces. Aramanda joined the firm last month. He did not respond to a request for comment.

Biotech giant Illumina, which purchased Grail in 2021, announced earlier this week it would be divesting from the company following years of fighting with antitrust regulators over the deal. According to the recently released lobbying disclosures, the two firms’ work for Grail began on Dec. 1.

“As Congress prioritizes bipartisan legislation that helps ensure Medicare has the authority to cover multi-cancer early detection tests, Grail continues to educate on the science and engage on access barriers to cancer screening,” a company spokesperson said in an email.

EYES ON THE PRIZE — Lobbyists for business and consumer groups are planning a slew of calls and meetings with lawmakers and staff in the first weeks of 2024 and considering ad buys — hoping to push stricter disclosure requirements on insurers, pharmacy benefit managers, hospitals and other health facilities over the finish line, Megan reports.

“We’re going to take a break so members and staff can enjoy time with their families, but they’ll start to hear from us again before they even get back to Washington,” said Adam Buckalew, a lobbyist representing Better Solutions for Healthcare, a coalition that includes AHIP and the American Benefits Council.

Earlier this month, the House passed a sweeping health package that would expand Trump-era regulations requiring hospitals and insurers to post their prices and negotiated rates for services — and the Senate has signaled an interest in moving the proposal. Lawmakers in both chambers have advanced measures that would force pharmacy benefit managers — the intermediaries between drugmakers and insurers — to be more transparent about their business operations.

The moves are part of a yearlong effort in Congress to address rising health care costs — an issue that could become particularly potent in the 2024 election year.

At the Agencies

NALOXONE IN FEDERAL BUILDINGS — HHS and the General Services Administration, which oversees federal real estate, have updated nearly 15-year-old safety guidance to say that federal facilities should have naloxone, an opioid overdose-reversal drug, on site.

The updated guidance builds upon 2009 recommendations that agencies have automated external defibrillators to treat people having heart attacks. The new guidance recommends that AED stations be converted into “safety stations” that also have naloxone and items to stop hemorrhaging.

Public Health

HOLIDAY RESPIRATORY ILLNESS OUTLOOK — Nearly 172,500 people went to the emergency room last week for the flu, Covid-19 or respiratory syncytial virus, according to CDC data.

While the agency says numbers are lower than seen this same time last year, they also indicate that the respiratory illness season, which typically lasts through the winter months, has yet to peak.

According to CDC data, more than half of ER visits for the week ending Dec. 16 were for the flu and one-third were for Covid-19. RSV made up around 13 percent of visits. Most of the patients were children under 12 years old — whose visits have been increasing since October.

Yet, vaccination rates remain low with fewer than half the population receiving a flu shot and less than 10 percent taking the latest Covid shot.

Nursing home residents, a vulnerable population that the CDC has prioritized in its vaccination campaign, have a slightly higher rate: As of Dec. 10, 33 percent of nursing residents had received the latest Covid shot.

Meanwhile, 17 percent of adults 60 and older have gotten their RSV shot.

Names in the News

The Government Accountability Office announced five new Health Information Technology Advisory Committee members: Dr. Lee Fleisher of the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Dr. Katrina Parrish of Humana, Dr. Randa Perkins of the H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center, Rochelle Prosser of Orchid Healthcare Solutions and Dr. Mark Sendak of the Duke Institute for Health Innovation.

WHAT WE'RE READING

POLITICO’s Robert King reports on Congress’ decision to skip town without addressing a pending cut to doctor Medicare payments, which could cause new headaches for practices and patients, according to doctor groups who are seeking help from CMS.

The Washington Post reports on the baffling rise in colon cancer among young people.

Dr. Zeke Emanuel, senior fellow at the Center for American Progress, explains in STAT why health costs are the one exception to inflation.

CLARIFICATION: An earlier version of this newsletter was unclear about whether Alec Aramanda had any lobbying restrictions. He does not


ChatGPT struggles to accurately answer medical questions, study says

(CNN) – Doctors and medical personnel will probably want to stay away from using artificial intelligence for medical advice.

Researchers at Long Island University posed 39 real-life medication-related queries to the free version of ChatGPT. The study found that ChatGPT provided accurate responses to only about 10 of the questions.

For the other 29 prompts, the answers were incomplete or inaccurate, or they didn’t even address the questions.

Interestingly, when researchers asked for scientific sourcing for answers, the platform fabricated references and citations in some cases.

A spokesperson for OpenAI, the organization that develops ChatGPT, said it advises users not to rely on responses as a substitute for professional medical advice or treatment.


ChatGPT struggles to answer medical questions, new research finds

ChatGPT might not be a cure-all for answers to medical questions, a new study suggests.

Researchers at Long Island University posed 39 medication-related queries to the free version of the artificial intelligence chatbot, all of which were dump questions from the university’s College of Pharmacy drug information service. The software’s answers were then compared with responses written and reviewed by trained pharmacists.

The study found that ChatGPT provided accurate responses to only about 10 of the questions, or about a quarter of the total. For the other 29 prompts, the answers were incomplete or inaccurate, or they did not address the questions.

The findings were presented Tuesday at the annual meeting of the American Society for Health-Systems Pharmacists in Anaheim, California.

ChatGPT, OpenAI’s experimental AI chatbot, was released in November 2022 and became the fastest-growing consumer application in history, with nearly 100 million people registering within two months.

Given that popularity, the researchers’ interest was sparked by concern that their students, other pharmacists and ordinary consumers would turn to resources like ChatGPT to explore questions about their health and medication plans, said Sara Grossman, an associate professor of pharmacy practice at Long Island University and one of the study’s authors.

Those queries, they found, often yielded inaccurate – or even dangerous – responses.

In one question, for example, researchers asked ChatGPT whether the Covid-19 antiviral medication Paxlovid and the blood-pressure lowering medication verapamil would react with each other in the body. ChatGPT responded that taking the two medications together would yield no adverse effects.

In reality, people who take both medications might have a large drop in blood pressure, which can cause dizziness and fainting. For patients taking both, clinicians often create patient-specific plans, including lowering the dose of verapamil or cautioning the person to get up slowly from a sitting position, Grossman said.

ChatGPT’s guidance, she added, would have put people in harm’s way.

“Using ChatGPT to address this question would put a patient at risk for an unwanted and preventable drug interaction,” Grossman wrote in an email to CNN.

When the researchers asked the chatbot for scientific references to support each of its responses, they found that the software could provide them for only eight of the questions they asked. And in each case, they were surprised to find that ChatGPT was fabricating references.

At first glance, the citations looked legitimate: They were often formatted appropriately, provided URLs and were listed under legitimate scientific journals. But when the team attempted to find the referenced articles, they realized that ChatGPT had given them fictional citations.

In one case, the researchers asked ChatGPT how to convert spinal injection doses of the muscle spasm medication baclofen to corresponding oral doses. Grossman’s team could not find a scientifically established dose conversion ratio, but ChatGPT put forth a single conversion rate and cited two medical organizations’ guidance, she said.

However, neither organization provides any official guidance on the dose conversion rate. In fact, the conversion factor that ChatGPT suggested had never been scientifically established. The software also provided an example calculation for the dose conversion but with a critical mistake: It mixed up units when calculating the oral dose, throwing off the dose recommendation by a factor of 1,000.

If that guidance was followed by a health care professional, Grossman said, they might deliver a patient an oral baclofen dose 1,000 times lower than required, which could cause withdrawal symptoms like hallucinations and seizures.

“There were numerous errors and “problems’ with this response and ultimately, it could have a profound impact on patient care,” she wrote.

The Long Island University study is not the first to raise concerns about ChatGPT’s fictional citations. Previous research has also documented that, when asked medical questions, ChatGPT can create deceptive forgeries of scientific references, even listing the names of real authors with previous publications in scientific journals.

Grossman, who had worked little with the software before the study, was surprised by how confidently ChatGPT was able to synthesize information nearly instantaneously, answers that would take trained professionals hours to compile.

“The responses were phrased in a very professional and sophisticated manner, and it just seemed it can contribute to a sense of confidence in the accuracy of the tool,” she said. “A user, a consumer, or others that may not be able to discern can be swayed by the appearance of authority.”

A spokesperson for OpenAI, the organization that develops ChatGPT, said it advises users not to rely on responses as a substitute for professional medical advice or treatment.

The spokesperson pointed to ChatGPT’s usage policies, which indicate that “OpenAI’s models are not fine-tuned to provide medical information.” The policy also states that the models should never be used to provide “diagnostic or treatment services for serious medical conditions.”

Although Grossman was unsure of how many people use ChatGPT to address medication questions, she raised concerns that they could use the chatbot like they would search for medical advice on search engines like Google.

“People are always looking for instantaneous responses when they have this at their fingertips,” Grossman said. “I think that this is just another approach of using ‘Dr. Google’ and other seemingly easy methods of obtaining information.”

For online medical information, she recommended that consumers use governmental websites that provide reputable information, like the National Institutes of Health’s MedlinePlus page.

Still, Grossman doesn’t believe that online answers can replace the advice of a health care professional.

“[Websites are] maybe one starting point, but they can take their providers out of the picture when looking for information about medications that are directly applicable to them,” she said. “But it may not be applicable to the patients themselves because of their personal case, and every patient is different. So the authority here should not be removed from the picture: the healthcare professional, the prescriber, the patient’s physicians.”

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Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

Höhere Gewalt

Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

Technisches Versagen

Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

Kriminelle Ursachen

Hackerangriffe

Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

Physischer Angriff

Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.

Erpressung

Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:

Cyber-Kosten:

  • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
  • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
  • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
  • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

  • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
  • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
  • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
  • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
  • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
  • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
  • Rechtsverteidigungskosten

Cyber-Eigenschäden:

  • Betriebsunterbrechung
  • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
  • Mehrkosten
  • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
  • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
  • Cyber-Erpressung
  • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
  • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
  • Cyber-Betrug