Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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Exam Number : NE-BC
Exam Name : ANCC Nurse Executive Certification 2024
Vendor Name : ANCC
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Exam : NE-BC

Exam Name : ANCC Nurse Executive Certification

Number of Questions : 175

Scored Questions : 150

Unscored Questions : 25



Category Domains of Practice No. of Questions Percent

I Structures and Processes 27 18%

II Professional Practice 55 37%

III Leadership 33 22%

IV Knowledge Management 35 23%

Total 150 100%



There are 175 questions on this examination. Of these, 150 are scored questions and 25 are pretest questions that are not scored. Pretest questions are used to determine how well these questions will perform before they are used on the scored portion of the examination. The pretest questions cannot be distinguished from those that will be scored, so it is important for a candidate to answer all questions. A candidate's score, however, is based solely on the 150 scored questions. Performance on pretest questions does not affect a candidate's score.



I. Structures and Processes (18%)

A. Human Capital Management

Knowledge of:

1. Federal and state laws (e.g., Family and Medical Leave Act [FMLA], American with Disabilities Act [ADA], Fair Labor Standards Act [FLSA], wage and hour laws, equal employment opportunities, Occupational Safety and Health Administration [OSHA],

workers compensation)

2. Labor relations (e.g., collective bargaining, contract negotiations, grievances and arbitrations, National Labor Relations Board [NLRB])

3. Resource utilization (e.g., cross training, job descriptions )

4. Principles associated with human resources (e.g., employee assistance and counseling, compensation, benefits, coaching, performance management)

5. Organizational culture (e.g., just culture, transparency)

6. Organizational structure (e.g., chain of command, organizational chart, span of control)

Skills in:

7. Participating in developing and modifying administrative policies and procedures

8. Implementing and enforcing administrative policies and procedures (e.g., monitoring compliance)

9. Providing feedback on effectiveness of administrative policies and procedures

10. Evaluating the effectiveness of roles based on changing needs in the health care environment (e.g., new or expanded job descriptions, professional development)

B. Financial Management

Knowledge of:

1. Basic financial and budgeting principles (e.g., revenue cycle, supply and labor expenses, productivity, depreciation, return on investment [ROI], cost-benefit analysis)

2. Reimbursement methods (e.g., payor systems, pay for performance, payment bundling, value-based purchasing)

3. Contractual agreements (e.g., vendors, materials, staffing)

4. Principles of staffing workload (e.g., full-time equivalents [FTE], hours per patient day, skill mix)

Skills in:

5. Developing a budget (e.g., operational, capital)

6. Analyzing variances and managing a budget (e.g., operational, capital)

7. Efficient resource utilization (e.g., contractual agreements, outsourcing)

8. Determining appropriate staffing workload

C. Health and Public Policy

Knowledge of:

1. Legal issues (e.g., fraud, whistle-blowing, the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act [HIPAA], corporate compliance, electronic access and security, harassment, malpractice, negligence)

2. Consumer-driven health care (e.g., public reporting, Community Health Needs Assessment [CHNA], Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems [HCAHPS], Healthgrades)

3. Emergency planning and response

4. Planning and responding to internal and external disasters

5. Planning and responding to health and public policy issues

6. Assessing, addressing, and preventing legal issues (e.g., violations, fraud, whistleblowing, the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act [HIPAA], corporate compliance, electronic access and security, harassment)



II. Professional Practice (37%)

A. Care Management/Delivery

Knowledge of:

1. Health care delivery models and settings (e.g., accountable care organization [ACO], patient-centered medical home [PCMH], nurse-led clinic, telehealth, e-health, inpatient, ambulatory care, home health, rehabilitation, etc.)

2. Laws, regulations, and accrediting bodies (e.g., The Joint Commission, Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, Nurse Practice Act)

3. Standards of nursing practice (e.g., clinical practice guidelines, clinical pathways, ANA Scope and Standards of Practice, Nurse Practice Act)

Skills in:

4. Establishing staffing models (e.g., primary care nursing, team nursing, nurse-patient ratios, skill mix, acuity)

5. Designing workflows based on care delivery model and population served (e.g., patient centered medical home [PCMH], interdisciplinary team, case management, disease management, throughput, staffing assignment and scheduling)

6. Developing policies and procedures that ensure regulatory compliance with professional standards and organizational integrity

B. Professional Practice Environment and Models

Knowledge of:

1. Professional practice models

2. Role delineation (e.g., credentialing, privileging, certification)

3. Professional practice standards (e.g., ANA Scope and Standards of Practice, Nurses Bill of Rights, Nurse Practice Act)

4. Employee performance feedback (e.g., coaching, performance appraisal, Just Culture)

Skills in:

5. Developing clinical staff (e.g., orientation, continuing education, competency validation, performance appraisal, peer review, mentoring, planning, lifelong learning)

6. Creating a professional environment for empowered decision making (e.g., shared governance, staff accountability, critical thinking, civility)

7. Recruiting, recognizing, and retaining staff

8. Providing internal and external customer service (including service recovery)

9. Creating a vision for professional nursing practice that promotes patient and family centered care

C. Communication

Knowledge of:

1. Communication principles (e.g., active listening, reflective communication, two-way communication, interviewing)

2. Communication styles (e.g., persuasive, assertive, passive, aggressive, passiveaggressive)

3. Negotiation concepts and strategies (e.g., compromising, collaborating, win-win)

4. Communication processes that support safe patient care (e.g., documentation, handoffs or hand-overs, bedside reporting, incident reporting, reporting sentinel events)

Skills in:

5. Communicating using verbal (e.g., oral and written) and nonverbal methods (e.g., body language, eye contact, active listening)

6. Facilitating collaboration to achieve optimal outcomes (e.g., team building, group dynamics, leveraging diversity)

7. Selecting the appropriate communication method for the audience and situation (e.g., email, role playing, presentation, reports, staff meeting, board meeting, one-on-one conversation, patient/family council, consumer feedback)

8. Conflict management



III. Leadership (22%)

A. Leadership Effectiveness

Knowledge of:

1. Key elements of a healthy work environment

2. Leadership concepts, principles, and styles (e.g., pervasive leadership, servant leadership, situational leadership, appreciative inquiry, culture of transparency, change management theories)

3. Coaching, mentoring, and precepting

4. Emotional intelligence

5. Sources of influence and power

Skills in:

6. Self reflection and personal leadership evaluation

7. Integrating diversity and sensitivity into the work environment

8. Change management

9. Building effective relationships through listening, reflecting, presence, communication, and networking

10. Succession planning

11. Creating an environment to engage and empower employees

B. Strategic Visioning and Planning

Knowledge of:

1. Strategic planning principles (e.g., alignment of nursings strategic plan with the organizational plan, SWOT analysis, components of strategic planning)

2. New program development (e.g., proposals, pro forma, business plans, marketing)

3. Trends that effect nursing practice and the healthcare environment

4. Communicating and building consensus and support for the strategic plan

5. Establishing baselines for processes (i.e., measuring current performance)

6. Evaluating processes and outcome measures over time

7. Project management to support/achieve the strategic plan (e.g., planning, implementing, and monitoring action plans)

C. Ethics and Advocacy

Knowledge of:

1. Ethical principles

2. Business ethics (e.g., corporate compliance, privacy)

3. ANAs Code of Ethics

4. Patients Bill of Rights

Skills in:

5. Advocating for patients (e.g., patient rights, access, and safety)

6. Advocating for staff (e.g., healthy work environment, equipment, staffing)

7. Advocating for the nursing profession (e.g., professional organizations, promoting education, certification, legislative influence)



IV. Knowledge Management (23%)

A. Quality Monitoring and Improvement

Knowledge of:

1. Systems theory

2. Continuous performance improvement (The Plan-Do-Study-Act [PDSA] Cycle, Lean, root cause analysis, tracer methodology)

3. Process and outcome measures (e.g., clinical, financial, safety, patient satisfaction, employee satisfaction)

4. Culture of safety (e.g., risk management, employee engagement, employee safety technologies [patient lifts], patient safety technologies [bar coding])

Skills in:

5. Creating a culture of continuous performance improvement

6. Translating data into information (including use of internal and external benchmarks), and disseminating it at various levels within the organization

7. Evaluating and prioritizing outcomes of care delivery (e.g., nurse sensitive indicators, ORYX indicators, National Patient Safety Goals, core measures)

8. Selecting the appropriate continuous performance improvement technique

9. Action planning to address identified quality issues

B. Evidence-based Practice and Research

Knowledge of:

1. Institutional Review Board (IRB) requirements (e.g., protection of human research subjects)

2. Research and evidence-based practice techniques (e.g., literature review, developing research questions, study methods and design, data management, levels of evidence)

3. Distinguish between performance improvement, evidence-based practice, and research

4. Creating a culture and advocating for resources that support research and scholarly inquiry (e.g., journal club, grant writing, research councils, research participation)

5. Communicating research and evidence-based findings to internal and external stakeholders

6. Incorporating evidence into policies, standards, procedures and guidelines

7. Evaluating and incorporating new knowledge and published research findings into practice

C. Innovation

Knowledge of:

1. Clinical practice innovation

2. Leadership practice innovation

Skills in:

3. Creating a culture that values, encourages, and recognizes new and innovative ideas that benefit the patient, family, organization, or community

4. Developing a framework for implementing innovations (e.g., small tests of change, pilot studies)

5. Leveraging diversity to encourage new and innovative ideas or new patterns of thinking

6. Evaluating and applying technology to support innovation



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Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

Höhere Gewalt

Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

Technisches Versagen

Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

Kriminelle Ursachen

Hackerangriffe

Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

Physischer Angriff

Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.

Erpressung

Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:

Cyber-Kosten:

  • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
  • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
  • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
  • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

  • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
  • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
  • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
  • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
  • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
  • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
  • Rechtsverteidigungskosten

Cyber-Eigenschäden:

  • Betriebsunterbrechung
  • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
  • Mehrkosten
  • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
  • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
  • Cyber-Erpressung
  • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
  • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
  • Cyber-Betrug