Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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Exam Number : NREMT-PTE
Exam Name : NREMT Paramedic Trauma Exam
Vendor Name : Medical
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NREMT-PTE exam Format | NREMT-PTE Course Contents | NREMT-PTE Course Outline | NREMT-PTE exam Syllabus | NREMT-PTE exam Objectives

Exam Details:
- Number of Questions: The number of questions in the NREMT Paramedic Trauma exam (NREMT-PTE) can vary, but it typically consists of approximately 80 to 120 multiple-choice questions. The exact number of questions may vary depending on the specific version of the exam.

- Time: Candidates are usually given a specific time limit to complete the NREMT-PTE, which is typically around 2 to 3 hours. It is important to manage time effectively to ensure all questions are answered within the allocated time.

Course Outline:
The NREMT-PTE exam focuses on assessing the knowledge and skills of paramedics in the area of trauma management. While the exact course outline and content may vary, the exam generally covers the following key areas:

1. Trauma Assessment and Management:
- Primary and secondary survey techniques
- Recognition and management of life-threatening injuries
- Identification and management of shock
- Assessment and treatment of head, neck, spine, and chest injuries
- Management of abdominal and pelvic trauma
- Assessment and treatment of musculoskeletal injuries
- Management of burns and thermal injuries

2. Airway Management and Ventilation:
- Airway exam and maintenance techniques
- Use of airway adjuncts (e.g., oral airway, supraglottic airway devices)
- Bag-mask ventilation techniques
- Endotracheal intubation and advanced airway management
- Management of complications related to airway interventions

3. Cardiac and Cardiovascular Emergencies:
- Recognition and management of cardiac arrest
- Cardiovascular exam and monitoring
- Use of defibrillation and advanced cardiac life support techniques
- Management of acute coronary syndromes
- Identification and treatment of dysrhythmias
- Hemodynamic monitoring and management

4. Medical Emergencies:
- Assessment and management of respiratory emergencies
- Neurologic emergencies and stroke management
- Allergic reactions and anaphylaxis management
- Endocrine emergencies (e.g., diabetic emergencies, adrenal crisis)
- Management of toxicological emergencies
- Assessment and treatment of psychiatric emergencies

5. Pediatric and Geriatric Trauma:
- Assessment and management of trauma in pediatric and geriatric populations
- Special considerations for pediatric and geriatric patients
- Age-specific exam techniques and interventions

Exam Objectives:
The objectives of the NREMT-PTE exam typically include:
- Assessing the candidate's knowledge and understanding of trauma exam and management principles.
- Evaluating the candidate's ability to apply critical thinking skills in the context of trauma scenarios.
- Testing the candidate's knowledge of airway management, ventilation, and cardiac emergencies.
- Assessing the candidate's ability to apply appropriate interventions for medical emergencies.
- Evaluating the candidate's understanding of special considerations for pediatric and geriatric trauma patients.

Exam Syllabus:
The specific exam syllabus for the NREMT-PTE may vary, but it generally includes the following topics:

1. Trauma Assessment and Management:
- Primary and secondary survey
- Life-threatening injuries
- Shock management
- Head, neck, spine, and chest injuries
- Abdominal and pelvic trauma
- Musculoskeletal injuries
- Burns and thermal injuries

2. Airway Management and Ventilation:
- Airway exam and maintenance
- Airway adjuncts
- Bag-mask ventilation
- Endotracheal intubation
- Advanced airway management
- Airway intervention complications

3. Cardiac and Cardiovascular Emergencies:
- Cardiac arrest management
- Cardiovascular exam and monitoring

- Defibrillation and advanced cardiac life support
- Acute coronary syndromes
- Dysrhythmia recognition and treatment
- Hemodynamic monitoring

4. Medical Emergencies:
- Respiratory emergencies
- Neurologic emergencies and stroke
- Allergic reactions and anaphylaxis
- Endocrine emergencies
- Toxicological emergencies
- Psychiatric emergencies

5. Pediatric and Geriatric Trauma:
- Pediatric and geriatric trauma exam and management
- Age-specific considerations

It is important to note that the specific content and emphasis of the NREMT-PTE may vary depending on the NREMT's guidelines and updates. Candidates should refer to the official study materials and resources provided by the NREMT for the most accurate and up-to-date information regarding the exam syllabus and content.

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VCU Health partners with Navy to Improve trauma care

No result found, try new keyword!RICHMOND, Va. (WAVY) — Healthcare professionals from Naval Medical Center Portsmouth are partnering with the medical team at VCU Medical Center’s Level I trauma center with a goal to reach ...

Hawaii trauma surgeon says Maui hospital is "holding up really well" amid wildfires

Wildfires burning in Hawaii have killed dozens and forced thousands to evacuate, sending the state's medical professionals into emergency response mode.

Dr. Art Chasen, trauma surgeon and trauma medical director of Maui Health, told CBS News Friday that the hospital is "holding up really well."

"We are part of a network in the state for trauma care and their role is to stabilize and transport patients to the state's only burn center," he said.

On Tuesday night, after wind gusts picked up and the flames spread, Chasen says they had about 40 patients come in. 

"We added two additional trauma surgeons to the trauma surgeon who was on call. The emergency room brought in seven additional nurses, and they ended up admitting and transporting about eight critically burned patients and the rest of them were treated and sent home."

Evacuations and an exam of the destruction on Maui continue, with more than 1,000 homes and other structures known to be damaged or destroyed, including historic buildings and many businesses in Lahaina.

Aftermath of the wildfires in Lahaina A view of damage cause by wildfires in Lahaina, Maui, Hawaii, in a photo released August 11, 2023.  Office of the Governor Hawaii Josh Green via REUTERS

The windy conditions and damage to power lines also affected patient transportation.

"A lot of the power lines were down on the highways first, so getting in and out of Lahaina was extremely difficult, and the winds were so high that it made helicopter transport super dangerous — so that did impact the situation and who was able to get from Lahaina to the emergency room," Chasen says, adding that patients have continued to trickle in over the last few days. 

"Now they have a lot of folks from their ambulance service, AMR — they're on the ground out there, and there are plans being made to augment the care out there up until the point the highway opens up again."

In addition to wildfire-related injuries, Chasen says the team was also helping regular trauma patients for things like motorcycle crashes. 

"We're tough and we're able to keep going," he said. "We're not 'business as usual,' but we're able to maintain the pace."

He adds the emergency room also has capacity, meaning anybody that shows up there can be seen. 

"I've actually been contacted by physicians and burn reps from all over the country wanting to help, and I've directed them to (the Straub Burn Unit) for the critically ill patients," he says. "But in terms of what they do, which is resuscitate and transport patients, it's a big team effort. We're just doing their job."

Volunteers attend to evacuees from the West Maui wildfires at a shelter Volunteers attend to evacuees from the West Maui wildfires at a shelter set up at the Maui War Memorial in Wailuku, Hawaii, August 10, 2023. MARCO GARCIA / REUTERS

The Lahaina blaze is already the state's deadliest natural disaster since a 1960 tsunami that killed 61 people on the Big Island, and the deadliest U.S. wildfire since the 2018 Camp Fire in California, which killed at least 85 people and destroyed the town of Paradise.

"Lahaina, with a few rare exceptions, has been burned down," Hawaii Gov. Josh Green said during a news conference Thursday, after walking the ruins of the town with Maui County Mayor Richard Bissen Jr. "Without a doubt, it feels like a bomb was dropped on Lahaina."

"It's a heartbreaking day," he added. "Without a doubt, what they saw is catastrophic."

-The Associated Press contributed to this report.


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Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

Höhere Gewalt

Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

Technisches Versagen

Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

Kriminelle Ursachen


Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

Physischer Angriff

Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.


Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:


  • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
  • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
  • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
  • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

  • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
  • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
  • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
  • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
  • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
  • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
  • Rechtsverteidigungskosten


  • Betriebsunterbrechung
  • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
  • Mehrkosten
  • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
  • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
  • Cyber-Erpressung
  • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
  • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
  • Cyber-Betrug