Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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Teacher-Certification NYSTCE : New York State Teacher Certification ACTUAL EXAM QUESTIONS

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Exam Number : NYSTCE
Exam Name : New York State Teacher Certification
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Teacher-Certification Certification techniques


Apprenticeship model for teacher certification will tap local talent

Idaho is eight to 12 months away from launching a new certification model aimed at alleviating the teacher shortage, especially in rural or Native American communities.

“We’re hopeful that that’s going to come pretty quickly. But that’s me being really optimistic,” said Jenn Thompson, the State Board of Education chief policy and government affairs officer.

Like apprentice plumbers and electricians who receive hands-on training and financial support, Idaho’s teacher apprenticeship model is a non-traditional path to certification that removes barriers preventing candidates from becoming educators.

The model creates an affordable pathway for candidates who possess the skill and aptitude but lack a bachelor’s degree, because they receive a salary while obtaining training, experience and preparation for licensure.

Lack of financial resources and living in remote locations are the two main barriers. Many potential candidates can’t stop working to enroll in one of the state’s teacher preparation programs because they have to earn a living; others live in rural areas and cannot attend college because of the required driving distance.

“This isn’t going to be the silver bullet that solves everything, but they hope that it becomes another really useful tool for filling positions,” said Thompson.

This new concept relies on local decisions. If a principal or other administrator identifies someone in their schools who displays a commitment and interest in serving students, that individual could be encouraged to use this pathway to certification.

Kathleen Shoup, an educator effectiveness program manager, said, “There is a sense of urgency to fill teacher positions due to the teacher shortage. And the teacher shortage areas for Idaho can be identified through the federal teacher shortage areas.”

According to a U.S. Department of Education report, last year Idaho had teacher shortages in the following instructional areas:

  • Chinese and German
  • English as a second language
  • Science for gifted and talented
  • Health science
  • Music education
  • Library/media specialist
  • Special education for exceptional children
  • Special education for visual impairment
  • Special education for early childhood
  • And director of special education
  • The salary for teacher apprentices is “at the discretion of the school district or charter school based on a locally set amount,” according to State Board documents. The program could take up to three years to complete but depending on an individual’s education level or experience, that timeframe could be shorter.

    They will work under the supervision of a highly qualified mentor.  And “we hope to provide a stipend for those mentor teachers,” said Mike Keckler, chief communications officer.

    The apprenticeship model joins Idaho’s four other non-traditional methods of obtaining a teaching certification. The program is eight to 12 months away from accepting its first group of candidates. Superintendents decide who the best apprenticeship candidates are

    The superintendents of local education agencies (LEAs) or charter schools choose whether to participate and who will be offered contracts. Both state and federal funding will be made available to help with course materials, textbooks, professional development, required classes and other costs, Shoup explained.

    “The key here is that it’s an employer-driven program,” Thompson said. “The LEA has to want to hire this person. It’s the LEA saying I have a candidate that I think is perfect.”

    Apprenticeship candidates do not need a bachelor’s degree. Superintendents might consider someone looking to make a career change or a paraprofessional, but “it could be someone who works in any capacity in the school,” Thompson said. 

    The selection criteria has not been decided, Shoup said. “That is part of the standards that they have to include for the US Department of Labor.” Eventually, Idaho’s program will apply to be a registered member of that federal agency. There are currently 21 states registered.

    Successful teacher apprentices can obtain full certification

    “I do want to emphasize that the competencies are important,” Thompson said.

    Once they’re developed, those are the competencies — or teacher certification standards — that have to be evaluated by the superintendent, but “that is also why they want to make sure they have those additional assurances in place that they did pass the content test test.”

    “That would help keep us all confident that the quality is high,” she said.

    The Department of Labor requires 2,000 hours a year of on-the-job learning and 144 hours of related technical instruction. “And so if you multiply that by someone that potentially would have a three-year program, that’s 6000 hours of on the job learning” and then 432 hours of technical training, Shoup added.

    “It’s a full-time job,” Keckler said.

    Unlike the traditional route of obtaining a four-year degree and then completing supervised part-time teaching in your last semester, “this sort of flips the script on that, so you’re in the school and in the classroom full time, and on the side you’re getting the training you need to complete those competencies,” Thompson said.

    “The hope is that at the end you’ve got the same training and experience — you’re just getting it in a flipped model,” she said.

    “It’s a different pathway to certification, but they would ultimately receive a teacher certification,” Shoup said. “Non-traditional teaching programs lead to three-year interim certificates but the apprenticeship program will provide a standard five-year certificate.”

    Idaho has four non-traditional certification options listed on the Board of Education website: American Board, College of Southern Idaho, Lewis-Clark State College and Teach for America.

    The State Board of Education is sponsoring the program but will collaborate with other agencies — like the Idaho Department of Labor and U.S. Department of Labor — and higher education institutions. An advisory committee meeting was held in July and another one is planned for September. There are approximately 26 representatives serving on this committee.

    Teacher Certification

    The paintings on this page were created by high school students in the Saturday Art School under the direction of student teachers DeAndra Craigman and Danielle White

    Updated August 2020

    Our graduate and undergraduate programs are recognized by New York State Education Department (NYSED) as “approved teacher preparation program(s)” and as such prepare students to meet the requirements of Initial Certification in Visual Art, Grades Pre-K-12.

    This page directs students to certification information but does not replace the State website on certification. It is a student’s responsibility to visit the New York State Office of Teaching Initiatives website to keep abreast of changes to certification requirements and to visit the New York State Teacher Certification Exams website for all test and submission dates and fees.

    Certification Requirements

    In order to be recommended for NYSED Initial/Certification in Visual Arts, Pre-K–12, candidates must have completed the following procedures, workshops and tests as you move through the program so that by the time you have finished your last semester, you will have completed everything you will need to apply for certification.

    New York State Education Department (NYSED) Teach Account

    First, students must open an account with New York State Education Department TEACH System, select Initial or Professional Certification in Visual Art, all grades (Pre-K-12), pay the $50 fee, verify, and update their profiles. Students are responsible for regularly monitoring your TEACH accounts for accuracy. The TEACH account records and verifies your progress towards certification. Instructions for using TEACH online are available here.

    Complete the Following Workshops:
  • Child Abuse Identification Workshop (register)
  • School Violence Prevention and Intervention Workshop (register)
  • DASA: Training in Harassment, Bullying, Cyberbullying, and Discrimination in Schools (6-hour workshop)
  • The DASA workshop will be offered at Pratt Institute every Fall for current students only. Contact jjoshua@pratt.edu for the date of the next scheduled workshop and to register. If you take the DASA workshop outside of Pratt it must be taken with a provider approved by NYSED and it will be at your own expense.

    Earn a Passing Score on the Following Exams:
  • Educating all Students (EAS)
  • Content Specialty Test (CST)
  • Teacher Performance Assessment (TPA)
  • *Note: The test and test score dates are available from the NYSTCE website. Test Preparation Guides are also available from NYSTCE.

    Institutional Recommendation Form

    In order to be “recommended” for certification, students must complete an Institutional Recommendation Form (IRF) form prior to graduation. These forms are available from the ADE office (contact Jonell Joshua at jjoshua@pratt.edu). Completed forms must be submitted to the ADE office either in person or by mail at the completion of the program/graduation.

    What’s Next?

    Once the completed IRF forms and all supporting documents are approved by the ADE Office, they are turned over to the Registrar for review and the student is then “recommended” for certification. Students who are NOT currently in one of their “approved programs” leading to certification, should contact NYS Office of Teaching Initiatives for more information.


    Jonell JoshuaAssistant to the Chair of Art and Design EducationMain building, room 202Pratt Institute200 Willoughby AvenueBrooklyn, NY 11205718.636.3637


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    Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

    Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

    Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

    Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

    Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

    Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

    Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

    Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

    Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

    Höhere Gewalt

    Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

    Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

    Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

    Technisches Versagen

    Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

    Kriminelle Ursachen


    Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

    Physischer Angriff

    Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.


    Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

    Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:


    • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
    • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
    • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
    • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

    Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

    • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
    • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
    • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
    • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
    • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
    • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
    • Rechtsverteidigungskosten


    • Betriebsunterbrechung
    • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
    • Mehrkosten
    • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
    • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
    • Cyber-Erpressung
    • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
    • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
    • Cyber-Betrug