Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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The-Open-Group 9 information search


15 top open-source intelligence tools

Find sensitive public info before the bad guys do.

OSINT definition

Open-source intelligence (OSINT) is the practice of collecting information from published or otherwise publicly available sources. OSINT operations, whether practiced by IT security pros, malicious hackers, or state-sanctioned intelligence operatives, use advanced techniques to search through the vast haystack of visible data to find the needles they're looking for to achieve their goals.

OSINT is in many ways the mirror image of operational security (OPSEC), which is the security process by which organizations protect public data about themselves that could, if properly analyzed, reveal damaging truths. In-house security teams perform OSINT operations on their own organizations to shore up operational security. They try to find sensitive information that the company might not realize is public. This allows them to protect exposed data or anticipate what information an attacker might have about the organization. That information is critical when assessing risk, prioritizing security resources, and improving security practices and policies.

Open source in this context doesn't refer to the open-source software movement, although many OSINT tools are open source. Instead, it describes the public nature of the data being analyzed.

OSINT history: From spycraft to IT

During the 1980s, the military and intelligence services began to shift some of their information-gathering activities away from covert activities like trying to read an adversary's mail or tapping their phones to discover hidden secrets. Instead, effort was put into looking for useful intelligence that was freely available or even officially published.

The world at the time was changing, and even though social media had not yet made the scene, there were plenty of sources like newspapers and publicly available databases that contained interesting and sometimes useful information, especially if someone knew how to connect a lot of dots. The term OSINT was originally coined to refer to this kind of spycraft.

These same techniques can now be applied to cybersecurity. Most organizations have vast, public-facing infrastructures that span many networks, technologies, hosting services and namespaces. Information can be stored on employee desktops, in legacy on-prem servers, with employee-owned devices, in the cloud, embedded inside devices like webcams, or even hidden in the source code of active apps and programs.

In fact, security and IT staff at large companies almost never knows about every asset in their enterprise, public or not. Add in the fact that many organizations also own or control several additional assets indirectly, such as their social media accounts, and there is potentially a lot of information sitting out there that could be dangerous in the wrong hands.

Why is OSINT important?

OSINT is crucial in keeping tabs on that information chaos. IT needs to fulfill three important tasks within OSINT, and a wide range of OSINT tools have been developed to help meet those needs. Most tools serve all three functions, though many excel in one particular area.

Discovering public-facing assets

Their most common function is helping IT teams discover public-facing assets and mapping what information each possesses that could contribute to a potential attack surface. Their main job is recording what information someone could publicly learn about company assets without resorting to hacking, not looking things like program vulnerabilities or performing penetration testing.

Discover relevant information outside the organization

A secondary function that some OSINT tools perform is looking for relevant information outside of an organization, such as in social media posts or at domains and locations that might be outside of a tightly defined network. Organizations that have made a lot of acquisitions, bringing along the IT assets of the company they are merging with, could find this function very useful. Given the extreme growth and popularity of social media, looking outside the company perimeter for sensitive information is probably helpful for just about any group.

Collate discovered information into actionable form

Finally, some OSINT tools help to collate and group all the discovered information into useful and actionable intelligence. Running an OSINT scan for a large enterprise can yield hundreds of thousands of results, especially if both internal and external assets are included. Piecing all that data together and being able to deal with the most serious problems first can be extremely helpful.

Using the right OSINT tool for your organization can Improve cybersecurity by helping to discover information about your company, employees, IT assets and other confidential or sensitive data that could be exploited by an attacker. Discovering that information first and then hiding or removing it could reduce everything from phishing to denial-of-service (DoS) attacks. Professionals who regularly perform OSINT operations will often use a suite of tools depending on their environment and preferences.

Following (in no particular order) are some of the top tools used for OSINT, what areas they specialize in, why they are unique and different from one another, and what specific value they might be able to bring to an organization's cybersecurity efforts.

  • Maltego
  • Mitaka
  • SpiderFoot
  • Spyse
  • BuiltWith
  • Intelligence X
  • DarkSearch.io
  • Grep.app
  • Recon-ng
  • theHarvester
  • Shodan
  • Metagoofil
  • Searchcode
  • SpiderFoot
  • Babel X
  • Maltego

    Maltego specializes in uncovering relationships among people, companies, domains and publicly accessible information on the internet. It's also known for taking the sometimes enormous amount of discovered information and plotting it all out in easy-to-read charts and graphs. The graphs do a good job of taking raw intelligence and making it actionable, and each graph can have up to 10,000 data points.

    The Maltego program works by automating the searching of different public data sources, so users can click on one button and execute multiple queries. A search plan is called a "transform action" by the program, and Maltego comes with quite a few by default that include common sources of public information like DNS records, whois records, search engines and social networks. Because the program is using public interfaces to perform its searching, it's compatible with almost any source of information that has a public interface, so adding more searches to a transform action or making up a whole new one is easily possible.

    Once the information is gathered, Maltego makes connections that can unmask the hidden relationships between names, email addresses, aliases, companies, websites, document owners, affiliations and other information that might prove useful in an investigation, or to look for potential future problems. The program itself runs in Java, so it works with Windows, Mac and Linux platforms.

    There is a free version of the program with limited features called Maltego CE. Desktop versions of Maltego XL run $1,999 per instance. Server installations for large-scale commercial use start at $40,000 and come with a complete training program.


    Available as a Chrome extension and Firefox add-on, Mitaka lets you search over six dozen search engines for IP addresses, domains, URLs, hashes, ASNs, Bitcoin wallet addresses, and various indicators of compromise (IOCs) from your web browser. sharma osint 1 Ax Sharma

    The extension saves up your time by acting as a shortcut to various online databases that can be queried with a click.

    For those who prefer a focused, more limited set, an alternative extension Sputnik is also available.


    Spiderfoot is a free OSINT reconnaissance tool that integrates with multiple data sources to gather and analyze IP addresses, CIDR ranges, domains and subdomains, ASNs, email addresses, phone numbers, names and usernames, BTC addresses, etc. Available on GitHub, Spiderfoot comes with both a command-line interface and an embedded web-server for providing an intuitive web-based GUI.

    The application itself comes with over 200 modules making it ideal for red teaming reconnaissance activities, to discover more information about your target or identify what you or your organisation may be inadvertently exposing on the internet.


    Spyse describes itself as the "most complete internet assets registry" geared toward cybersecurity professionals. Relied on by projects like OWASP, IntelligenceX, and the aforementioned Spiderfoot, Spyse collects publicly available data on websites, their owners, associated servers, and IoT devices. This data is then analyzed by the Spyse engine to spot any security risks in and connections between these different entities.

    A free plan is available, although for developers planning on building apps using the Sypse API, paid subscriptions may be required.


    As the name implies, BuiltWith lets you find what popular websites are built with. Different tech stacks and platforms power different sites. BuiltWith can, for example, detect whether a website is using WordPress, Joomla, or Drupal as its CMS and provide further details.

    BuiltWith also generates a neat list of known JavaScript/CSS libraries (e.g., jQuery or Bootstrap) that a website uses. Further, the service provides a list of plugins installed on the websites, frameworks, server information, analytics and tracking information, etc. BuiltWith can be used for reconnaissance purposes.

    What's more? Combine BuiltWith with website security scanners like WPScan that, for example, integrate with WordPress Vulnerability Database API to spot common security vulnerabilities impacting a website.

    For those looking to identify mainly the tech stack makeup of a site, Wappalyzer may be better suited as it provides a more focused, concise output. Try both BuiltWith and Wappalyzer for yourself and see which suits your needs better.

    Intelligence X

    Intelligence X is a first-of-its-kind archival service and search engine that preserves not only historic versions of web pages but also entire leaked data sets that are otherwise removed from the web due to the objectionable nature of content or legal reasons. Although that may sound similar to what Internet Archive's Wayback Machine does, Intelligence X has some stark differences when it comes to the kind of content the service focuses on preserving. When it comes to preserving data sets, no matter how controversial, Intelligence X does not discriminate.

    Intelligence X has previously preserved the list of over 49,000 Fortinet VPNs that were found vulnerable to a Path Traversal flaw. Later during the week, plaintext passwords to these VPNs were also exposed on hacker forums which, again, although removed from these forums, were preserved by Intelligence X.

    Previously, the service has indexed data collected from email servers of prominent political figures like Hillary Clinton and Donald Trump. Another accurate example of the media indexed by on Intelligence X is the footage from the 2021 Capitol Hill riots and the Facebook's data leak of 533 million profiles. To intel gatherers, political analysts, news reporters, and security researchers, such information can be incredibly valuable in various ways.


    While frequent visitors to the dark web may already be familiar with where to look for what, for those who may be new, DarkSearch.io can be a good platform for starting with their research activities. Like another dark web search engine Ahmia, DarkSearch is free but comes with a free API for running automated searches. Although both Ahmia and DarkSearch have .onion sites, you don't need to necessarily go to the .onion versions or use Tor for accessing either of these search engines. Simply accessing darksearch.io from a regular web browser will let you search the dark web.


    How do you search across half million git repos across the internet? Sure, you could try individual search bars offered by GitHub, GitLab, or BitBucket, but Grep.app does the job super efficiently. In fact, Grep.app was recently used by Twitter users and journalists on multiple occasions to get an idea of approximately how many repositories were using the Codecov Bash Uploader:

    Grep.app can also be useful when searching for strings associated with IOCs, vulnerable code, or malware (such as the Octopus Scanner, Gitpaste-12, or malicious GitHub Action cryptomining PRs) lurking in OSS repos.


    Developers who work in Python have access to a powerful tool in Recon-ng, which is written in that language. Its interface looks very similar to the popular Metasploit Framework, which should reduce the learning curve for those who have experience with it. It also has an interactive help function, which many Python modules lack, so developers should be able to pick it up quickly.

    Recon-ng automates time-consuming OSINT activities, like cutting and pasting. Recon-ng doesn’t claim that all OSINT gathering can be conducted by its tool, but it can be used to automate much of the most popular kinds of harvesting, leaving more time for the things that still must be done manually.

    Designed so that even the most junior Python developers can create searches of publicly available data and return good results, it has a very modular framework with a lot of built-in functionality. Common tasks like standardizing output, interacting with databases, making web requests and managing API keys are all part of the interface. Instead of programming Recon-ng to perform searches, developers simply choose which functions they want it to perform and build an automated module in just a few minutes.

    Recon-ng is free, open-source software. The available wiki includes comprehensive information for getting started with the tool as well as best practices for using it.


    One of the simplest tools to use on this list, theHarvester is designed to capture public information that exists outside of an organization's owned network. It can find incidental things on internal networks as well, but the majority of tools that it uses are outward facing. It would be effective as a reconnaissance step prior to penetration testing or similar exercises.

    The sources that theHarvester uses include popular search engines like Bing and Google, as well as lesser known ones like dogpile, DNSdumpster and the Exalead meta data engine. It also uses Netcraft Data Mining and the AlienVault Open Threat Exchange. It can even tap the Shodan search engine to discover open ports on discovered hosts. In general, theHarvester tool gathers emails, names, subdomains, IPs and URLs.

    TheHarvester can access most public sources without any special preparations. However, a few of the sources used require an API key. You must also have Python 3.6 or better in your environment.

    Anyone can obtain theHarvester on GitHub. It's recommended that you use a virtualenv to create an isolated Python environment when cloning it from there.


    Shodan is a dedicated search engine used to find intelligence about devices like the billions that make up the internet of things (IoT) that are not often searchable, but happen to be everywhere these days. It can also be used to find things like open ports and vulnerabilities on targeted systems. Some other OSINT tools like theHarvester use it as a data source, though deep interaction with Shodan requires a paid account.

    The number of places that Shodan can monitor and search as part of an OSINT effort is impressive. It's one of the few engines capable of examining operational technology (OT) such as the kind used in industrial control systems at places like power plants and manufacturing facilities. Any OSINT gathering effort in industries that deploy both information technology and OT would miss a huge chunk of that infrastructure without a tool like Shodan.

    In addition to IoT devices like cameras, building sensors and security devices, Shodan can also be turned to look at things like databases to see if any information is publicly accessible through paths other than the main interface. It can even work with videogames, discovering things like Minecraft or Counter-Strike: Global Offensive servers hiding on corporate networks where they should not be, and what vulnerabilities they generate.

    Anyone can purchase a Freelancer license and use Shodan to scan up to 5,120 IP addresses per month, with a return of up to a million results. That costs $59 per month. Serious users can buy a Corporate license, which provides unlimited results and scanning of up to 300,000 IPs monthly. The Corporate version, which costs $899 per month, includes a vulnerability search filter and premium support.


    Another freely available tool on GitHub, Metagoofil is optimized to extract metadata from public documents. Metagoofil can investigate almost any kind of document that it can reach through public channels including .pfd, .doc, .ppt, .xls and many others.

    The amount of interesting data that Metagoofil can gather is impressive. Searches return things like the usernames associated with discovered documents, as well as real names if available. It also maps the paths of how to get to those documents, which in turn would provide things like server names, shared resources and directory tree information about the host organization.

    Everything that Metagoofil finds would be very useful for a hacker, who could use it to do things like launch brute-force password attacks or even phishing emails. Organizations that want to protect themselves could instead take the same OSINT gathered information and protect or hide it before a malicious actor can take the initiative.


    For those who need to go really deep into the complex matrix of OSINT gathering, searchcode is a highly specialized search engine that looks for useful intelligence inside source code. This powerful engine is surprisingly the work of a single developer.

    Because a repository of code needs to be first added to the program before becoming searchable, searchcode straddles the line between an OSINT tool and one designed to find things other than public information. However, it can still be considered an OSINT tool because developers can use it to discover problems associated with having sensitive information accessible inside code on either running apps or those that are still in development. In the latter case, those problems could be fixed prior to deployment into a production environment.

    Although anything involving code is going to require more knowledge than, say, a Google search, searchcode does a great job of making its interface as easy to use as possible. Users simply type in their search fields and searchcode returns relevant results with search terms highlighted in the lines of code. Suggested searches include usernames, security flaws like eval $_GET calls, unwanted active functions like re.compile and special characters that can be used to launch code injection attacks.

    Most of the time, the results returned by searchcode are self-explanatory. However, it's possible to click through those results to find deeper information or matching problems if needed.

    Babel X

    Relevant information isn't always in English. Only about a quarter of internet users speak English as their primary language according to Statista, though various sources say as much as 55% of internet content is in English. The information you need might be in Chinese, Spanish or Tamil.

    Babel X from Babel Street is a multilingual search tool for the public internet, including blogs, social media, message boards and news sites. It also searches the dark web, including Onion sites, and some deep web content that Babel X can access through agreements or licensing from the content owners. The product is able to geo-locate the source of information it finds, and it can perform text analysis to identify relevant results. Babel X is currently capable of searching in more than 200 languages.

    Use cases where a multilingual search is useful include searching global news for situational awareness--for example, knowing trends in targeting for ransomware attacks. It can also be used to spot a company's intellectual property for sale on a foreign website, or information that shows a key partner has been compromised. Customers have also used Babel X to find user handles of suspected attackers on non-English message boards.

    The main Babel X product is cloud-based and allows customers to customize it by adding their own data sources to search. Babel Box is an on-premises version but lacks some features of Babel X, such as access to deep web data sources. Babel Channels, the lowest cost option, is a curated collection of data sources. A mobile app is available for all the options.

    OSINT Framework

    While these tools offer a wealth of OSINT data, there are many other tools and techniques available that help you fully understand your organization’s public footprint. An excellent resource for discovering more tools is the OSINT Framework, which offers a web-based interface that breaks down different Topic areas of interest to OSINT researchers and connects you to the tools that can help you sniff out the info you need.  

    The tools that the OSINT Framework will point you to are all free of charge, though some require registration or have more fully featured paid versions available. Some are simply tools that help construct advanced Google searches that can yield a surprising amount of information. The OSINT Framework is maintained by Justin Nordine, and has a project page on GitHub.

    Is OSINT illegal?

    While OSINT techniques are often used by malicious hackers as reconnaissance before they launch an illegal attack, for the most part the tools and techniques themselves are perfectly legal--after all, they’re designed to help you home in on data that’s published or otherwise in the public view. Even government agencies are encouraged to use OSINT techniques to ferret out holes in their own cybersecurity defenses.

    Following the trail opened by these OSINT queries can get you into legal grey areas, however. Media Sonar has some good advice on how to stay on the right side of the law here. For instance, it’s not illegal to access public areas of the dark web, and it can be important to do so if you’re trying to determine if your organization’s data has been breached or stolen; but you shouldn’t try to buy collections of stolen data as part of your research, or impersonate a law enforcement officer to shake information out of shady characters.

    In general, it’s important to develop a code of conduct in advance to guide your employees’ behavior on these expeditions, and to document everything you do to demonstrate that you’re sticking to those guidelines and haven’t broken any laws.

    Closing down open-source intelligence loopholes

    Not every hack or intrusion involves advanced persistent threats or deep, sophisticated penetrations. Hackers, like everyone else, will take the easiest path to their objectives. There is no need to try to crack tight cybersecurity through many months of effort if the information they want is available through a publicly accessible channel. At the very least, sensitive information can be used as a shortcut to obtaining valid credentials or to help plan an effective intrusion with less effort or risk.

    OSINT tools can help organizations get a grip on what information is available about them, their networks, data, and users. Finding that information quickly is key since it would allow for its removal before someone can exploit it. These tools can be a strong boost during that most critical race.

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    Addressing the epidemic of adolescent substance abuse | Commentary

    As I turn the corner onto my school’s open-air hallways, a soft breeze rustles past, carrying a sweet, foreign fragrance. I round the corner to search for the source, but I tilt my head in confusion — the smell was coming from a restroom.

    Opening the door, I stare in silence at the sight: a group of my peers huddled in a ring, laughing and vaping nonchalantly.

    Just like looks, scents can be deceiving. The trend of adolescent drug use has become an all-too-real presence in my once-carefree world.

    But why is adolescent drug abuse so prevalent? For starters, adolescents are more vulnerable. Studies by Dr. Linda Spear at Binghamton University show that adolescents have easily activated reward centers and amygdalar regions, which control emotion. Adolescents also have worse cues of limit intake, making it harder to gauge when to stop. On top of this, opinions are changing — a accurate study by Dr. Ryan Sultan and colleagues at Columbia University shows that the perceived risk of harm of cannabis use nearly halved over the past decade, with use among individuals 12 years and older having increased from 11.6% to 17.9%. These factors, along with shifts in federal criminal policies to decriminalize possession, contribute to adolescent drug use.

    The results are clear. The Florida Youth Substance Abuse Survey reports staggering statistics for adolescents in Florida: 11.0% have reported blacking out, 17.8% have been in the car of a marijuana-using driver, and 31.0% have drunk alcohol. In my community alone, there are countless news stories of referrals for drug possession, suspended students for drug use in the bathrooms, and even students being offered food laced with nicotine. Throughout Florida, these stories grow in magnitude, from peaking vaping epidemics to drug-related gun violence and overdose.

    All these cases share one thing in common — something must be done.

    One of the most pressing issues related to adolescent drug use remains the lack of access to help. Adults and college students have the freedom to visit hospitals, engage in counseling, participate in group therapy, and manage their insurance all by themselves. In contrast, adolescents have none of those opportunities. Must they wait for them to grow up, when it may already be too late? Some choose not to attend college and take jobs instead; how do they raise awareness to such a dispersed audience?

    The only feasible option they have is to address the root cause. Within the social fabric of their communities lies the culture of drug use and the normalizing of risky behaviors. Many universities in Florida, including the University of Florida, Santa Fe College, and Florida State University, address this by having their own campus recovery programs. Yet in high schools, there are only drug-free notices, disciplinary action, links to outside sources — in extreme cases, nothing. Where are the support programs for drug prevention? Where are the information and rehabilitation sessions youths desperately need? It’s time they call for change; each adolescent should have easily accessible help, with every environment providing awareness through recovery programs.

    But they cannot do it alone — they also need governmental action. Something must be done to address the lack of support compared to adult groups. From the means of acquiring drugs to therapy and rehabilitation, the government needs to endorse more programs to help adolescents struggling with substance abuse.

    But perhaps the most important part lies at home, the very bond of parent and child. No matter how independent they may seem, never forget that students, that we, are still children — they require supervision, care, and lots of love. How school’s been, what’s going on nowadays. These seemingly small conversations have an incredible impact. And given time, it can save thousands of young lives from the path to drug abuse.

    Breathe in, breathe out; nothing but a cool breeze as I walk through the halls. This is the future I dream of, that they dream of, as they all turn and dash toward their next class.

    Yoo-Min Koh is a junior at Gainesville High School.


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    Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

    Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

    Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

    Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

    Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

    Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

    Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

    Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

    Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

    Höhere Gewalt

    Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

    Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

    Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

    Technisches Versagen

    Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

    Kriminelle Ursachen


    Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

    Physischer Angriff

    Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.


    Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

    Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:


    • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
    • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
    • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
    • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

    Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

    • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
    • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
    • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
    • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
    • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
    • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
    • Rechtsverteidigungskosten


    • Betriebsunterbrechung
    • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
    • Mehrkosten
    • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
    • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
    • Cyber-Erpressung
    • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
    • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
    • Cyber-Betrug