Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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OG0-093 exam Format | OG0-093 Course Contents | OG0-093 Course Outline | OG0-093 exam Syllabus | OG0-093 exam Objectives

Exam Summary

This is a combined TOGAF 9 Part 1 and Part 2 examination for candidates who want to achieve Level 2 certification directly.

Exam Name: TOGAF® 9 Combined Part 1 and Part 2

Exam Number:

OG0-093 - English

OG0-098 - Simplified Chinese

Qualification upon passing: TOGAF 9 Certified

Delivered at: Authorized exam Provider Test Centers

Prerequisites: None

Supervised: Yes

Open Book: Dependent on section. This examination comprises two separate sections. The TOGAF 9 Part 1 section is CLOSED Book. The TOGAF 9 Part 2 section is OPEN book. An electronic copy of the specification is built into the exam and becomes available in Part 2 only.

Exam type: The exam comprises two sections. Section 1: 40 Simple Multiple Choice questions + Section 2: 8 Scenario Based, Complex Multiple Choice

Number of questions: 48

Pass score: The pass mark for Part 1 is 55%, which means 22 or more points out of maximum of 40 points. For Part 2, the pass mark is 60%, which means 24 or more points out of a maximum of 40 points. Note that you must pass both parts of the exam to achieve an overall pass result. If you fail either part you fail the examination, however you only need retake the examination(s) corresponding to the failed section(s).

Time limit: 150 Minutes total. Each section has a maximum time limit as follows: 60 Minutes on TOGAF 9 Part 1. 90 Minutes on TOGAF 9 Part 2. Once you complete the TOGAF 9 Part 1 section you cannot return to it. There is no break between sections; Part 1 directly follows Part 2.

- The basic concepts of Enterprise Architecture and the TOGAF standard

- The core concepts of the TOGAF 9 standard

- The key terminology of the TOGAF 9 standard

- The ADM cycle and the objectives of each phase, and how to adapt and scope the ADM

- The concept of the Enterprise Continuum; its purpose and constituent parts

- How each of the ADM phases contributes to the success of Enterprise Architecture

- The ADM guidelines and techniques

- How Architecture Governance contributes to the Architecture Development Cycle

- The concepts of views and viewpoints and their role in communicating with stakeholders

- The concept of building blocks

- The key deliverables of the ADM cycle

- The TOGAF reference models

- The TOGAF certification program

- How to apply the ADM phases in development of an Enterprise Architecture

- How to apply Architecture Governance in development of an Enterprise Architecture

- How to apply the TOGAF Architecture Content Framework

- How to apply the concept of Building Blocks

- How to apply the Stakeholder Management Technique

- How to apply the TOGAF Content Metamodel

- How to apply the TOGAF standard recommended techniques when developing an Enterprise Architecture

- The TOGAF Technical Reference Model and how to customize it to meet an organizations needs

- The Integrated Information Infrastructure Reference Model

- The content of the key deliverables of the ADM cycle

- How an Enterprise Architecture can be partitioned to meet the specific needs of an organization

- The purpose of the Architecture Repository

- How to apply iteration and different levels of architecture with the ADM

- How to adapt the ADM for security

- The role of architecture maturity models in developing an Enterprise Architecture

- The purpose of the Architecture Skills Framework and how to apply it within an organization

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The-Open-Group 9 information hunger


Community Hero Denise Williams opens up her home to neighbors in need

No result found, try new keyword!It started with a knock on the door by a hungry child. Now, Williams operates a food pantry, a library and kids book clubs all out of her home.

Berea is looking collegiate as BW students return: Around The Town

BEREA, Ohio -- This city, which shifts into a lower gear during the summer months, is revving up and looking like a college town again as students return to Baldwin Wallace University for the fall 2023 semester.

That’s good news for the many area businesses that rely on students to boost the bottom line, as well as for those of us who like the way students enliven their town.

The football team, marching band and cheerleading squad were first to arrive Aug. 8 and 9. The Yellow Jacket football team opens play Sept. 2 at home, in George Finnie Stadium, taking on Mount St. Joseph in the 45th Lee Tressel Shrine Classic.

The BW marching band will be showing off new uniforms at the game, too. Other sports teams, from soccer to volleyball, also kick off action that same weekend.

Meanwhile, a group of incoming first-year students returns for welcome activities Aug. 17. BW has enrolled a large incoming first-year class that is well north of 700 students (currently standing at 740) -- up significantly from last year.

Shawn Salamone, BW’s director of public information, said the size of the class and strength in year-to-year growth “are uncommon, given the current demographic decline in prospective college-age students.”

“We are excited that so many students continue to choose BW to pursue an extraordinary education,” Salamone said. ”Each new class of students enriches their campus community and adds something new to the university’s long history and tradition of excellence.”

The remaining residential sophomores, juniors and seniors will make their way back to campus housing starting Aug. 19.

Summer concert: The City of Middleburg Heights will host a free Concert in the Park featuring Abba Tribute Band performing “Always Abba,” from 6:30 to 8 p.m. Aug. 26 at City Hall Park, 15700 Bagley Road.

The event will include a beer garden and food trucks.

Landmark status: The former St. Mary Catholic School on Front Street has been designated a Landmark by Berea City Council.

Dru Riley of Liberty Development Co., which purchased the property, had requested the designation, stating that listing the building as a historic site would enable his company to apply for historic tax credits.

Liberty Development plans to convert the building to apartments.

The school opened in 1926. It moved to its new location, in a structure that once housed the former Lechner Elementary School, at 265 Baker St., in 1982.

Veterans picnic: The Office of Veterans Outreach and the City of Berea invite all veterans to the annual veterans picnic, from 5 to 7 p.m. Aug. 31 at The Kiwanis Pavilion at Coe Lake Park.

The picnic is free for all veterans, but meal tickets are required and must be reserved by Aug. 21 by calling the Office of Veterans Outreach at 440-973-4567 or emailing wspringer@cityofberea.org.

Music for this event will be by Guitars 4 Veterans. BBQ by 4 Seasons Catering.

SCAN Hunger Center Pantry: 39 W. Bagley Road, Williamsport Plaza. 440-260-7226. Open 10 a.m. to 2 p.m. on the second Friday of the month and 4 to 7 p.m. on the fourth Friday.

Church Street Ministries pantry: 1480 Bagley Road, 440-239-0549. Open noon to 2 p.m. Monday, Wednesday and Friday.

Rise in Love: Free hot meal from 2 to 4 p.m. on the third Sunday of the month at St. Adalbert Catholic Church, Keller Center, 66 Adalbert St. Eat in or carry out. The next meal is on Aug. 20th.

Free Community Meals: St. Paul Lutheran Church, 276 E. Bagley Road, served from 5 to 6 p.m. on the second and last Wednesdays of the month. Drive-up only.

People’s Community Church pantry: 628 Wesley Drive, 440-234-0609. Open 10 a.m. to noon on the third Saturday of the month. The next open pantry is on Aug.19th.

Second Mile Outreach Pantry: 1480 Bagley Road, 440-239-0549. Open noon to 2 p.m. on Monday, Wednesday and Friday.

Bread Ministry: Berea United Methodist Church, 170 Seminary St. 440-234-3525. Bread and pastries only. Noon to 2 p.m. Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday and Friday. Go to the church addition north side of Church Street, off Seminary. The pantry has double brown doors.

Free meals for students: Brook Park Branch Library, 6155 Engle Road. 3:30 to 4:30 p.m., Monday through Friday, for students 18 and younger, in collaboration with the Greater Cleveland Food Bank.

Pet Food Pantry: Animal Rescue Friends, 10015 E. River Road, Columbia Station, 10 a.m. to noon every Sunday. Contact 440-234-2034 or arfpet-pantry@gmail.com for more information.

Mini pantries: There are two Little Free Pantries located near People’s Community Church, 628 Wesley Drive, and Cuyahoga County Library’s Berea branch, at 7 Berea Commons. The Prospect Pantry is at the corner of Prospect Street and Jacqueline Drive.

Read more from the News Sun.

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Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

Höhere Gewalt

Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

Technisches Versagen

Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

Kriminelle Ursachen


Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

Physischer Angriff

Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.


Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:


  • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
  • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
  • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
  • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

  • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
  • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
  • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
  • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
  • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
  • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
  • Rechtsverteidigungskosten


  • Betriebsunterbrechung
  • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
  • Mehrkosten
  • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
  • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
  • Cyber-Erpressung
  • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
  • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
  • Cyber-Betrug