Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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Beat your test stress by running for success

By Paige Neal-HolderBBC News

Adriana says running is a stress relief

Students are being urged to swap their revision notes for trainers this test season to help with stress.

As exams are approaching, England Athletics is launching its first #RunAndRevise scheme, which aims to encourage pupils to take a break from revision and support their mental health through running.

It is aimed at people aged 16-25, who can take part by running a mile or more by themselves, or by joining an England Athletics club or a RunTogether group.

Schools, colleges and universities have also organised runs for their students to get involved in during the campaign.

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Liz Purbrick, England Athletic's Inclusion Manager, said: "There's a huge social element that running can bring.

"The #RunAndRevise campaign can be an opportunity for pupils to start talking about their mental health.

"Although we're a membership body and they want to get more people running, they also genuinely want to contribute to the mental health of their nation."

England Athletics will also provide information to runners about mental health services that they can reach out to.

Adriana is a Year 10 student preparing for her mock exams, and joined her running club about six months ago.

She runs up to twice a week, and praises the benefits of it in the build-up to exams.

"I'm always stressed about exams. I try and find a way to calm down about mocks", she said.

"I've found running is a stress relief. It takes my mind off things and I enjoy it."

Experts also agree that moving around can have benefits.

Dr Brendon Stubbs, of King's College London, said: "Our research has shown that being more active can protect you from developing mental health issues such as anxiety and depression in the future.

"Moving and doing exercise can help reduce stress levels and Improve concentration."

He said running is not the only way to Improve mental health.

"The evidence suggests that any type of physical activity can be good for you, such as taking out the dog for a walk, going to the gym, doing a sport with a friend or even yoga.

"The most important thing is to get away from the desk, and get moving during the test period."

The #RunandRevise campaign is due to take place from 13th-19th May during Mental Health Awareness Week.

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BM Education: Rethinking exams: Open-book format

Bangalore Mirror Bureau / Updated: Jan 3, 2024, 06:00 IST

BM Education: Rethinking exams: Open-book format

Open-book exams put less demand on memory

Group of experts suggest that govt consider open book exams to reduce anxiety linked with traditional testing

A committee of experts has recommended to the state government the consideration of introducing open-book exams in undergraduate courses to alleviate the fear associated with traditional examinations. In response to a student’s tragic suicide following a cheating incident, the government formed a committee comprising vice chancellors and educationists to propose potential measures, with open-book exams being one of the suggested options. A source said, “This could be one of the possibilities for making students ready for exams. Let’s see what the government has to say about this.”

The All India Council of Technical Education also advocates for the adoption of open-book exams, highlighting the limitations of traditional written examinations in promoting rote learning and superficial application of knowledge. Open-book exams, designed to allow students to reference class notes, textbooks, or approved materials while answering questions, are particularly beneficial for assessing higher-order thinking skills such as application, analysis, and evaluation. However, careful consideration must be given to selecting courses or curriculum areas best suited for open-book exams within a programme. Advantages of open-book examinations include being less demanding on memory, reducing stress, emphasising problem-solving and higher-order thinking, and reflecting real-life situations that require comprehension and synthesis skills. Designing effective open-book exams involves setting questions that require students to actively engage with information, moving beyond mere location and summarisation.In 2018, the then Primary and Secondary Education Minister N Mahesh announced the potential introduction of an ‘Open Book Exam’ system, with a few schools experimenting with the concept. Initially, some schools conducted 25-mark tests for Class 5 to 10 students, allowing them to refer to textbooks during the one-hour test. The question paper format was modified to ensure that understanding the basics of a lesson was essential for finding answers even with reference materials.

The CBSE also contemplated incorporating open-book exams, intending to provide case studies in advance rather than allowing books inside the test hall. The open-book section, carrying a 20% weightage, would feature questions based solely on the provided case studies in subjects like biology, economics, geography, and one additional subject. The aim is to move away from rote learning and foster a deeper understanding and application of concepts.


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A weekly podcast featuring current Baylor students sharing their tips, techniques, and favorite campus resources for academic success!

What can you expect from each episode?

  • Study strategies
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  • Baylor resources
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    Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

    Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

    Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

    Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

    Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

    Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

    Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

    Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

    Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

    Höhere Gewalt

    Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

    Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

    Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

    Technisches Versagen

    Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

    Kriminelle Ursachen

    Hackerangriffe

    Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

    Physischer Angriff

    Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.

    Erpressung

    Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

    Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:

    Cyber-Kosten:

    • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
    • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
    • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
    • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

    Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

    • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
    • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
    • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
    • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
    • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
    • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
    • Rechtsverteidigungskosten

    Cyber-Eigenschäden:

    • Betriebsunterbrechung
    • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
    • Mehrkosten
    • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
    • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
    • Cyber-Erpressung
    • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
    • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
    • Cyber-Betrug