Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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Exam Number : PANRE
Exam Name : Physician Assistant National Recertifying Exam
Vendor Name : Medical
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PANRE questions pdf download with Exam Questions
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PANRE exam Format | PANRE Course Contents | PANRE Course Outline | PANRE exam Syllabus | PANRE exam Objectives

Test Detail:
The Physician Assistant National Recertifying exam (PANRE) is a standardized exam administered by the National Commission on Certification of Physician Assistants (NCCPA). It is designed to assess the knowledge and skills of certified physician assistants seeking recertification. Below is a detailed description of the test, including the number of questions and time allocation, course outline, exam objectives, and exam syllabus.

Number of Questions and Time:
The PANRE exam consists of multiple-choice questions and is divided into two sections: Core Clinical Medicine (300 questions) and Organ System-Based Medicine (150 questions). The total number of questions is 450. Candidates are given a specific time limit of 4 hours and 5 minutes to complete the exam.

Course Outline:
The PANRE exam covers a comprehensive range of medical knowledge and skills required for the practice of physician assistants. The exam content is organized into the following key areas:

1. Core Clinical Medicine:
- Internal Medicine
- Pediatrics
- Obstetrics and Gynecology
- Surgery
- Emergency Medicine
- Psychiatry and Behavioral Health
- Professional Practice

2. Organ System-Based Medicine:
- Cardiovascular System
- Respiratory System
- Musculoskeletal System
- Gastrointestinal System
- Genitourinary System
- Endocrine System
- Hematologic System
- Neurologic System
- Dermatologic System
- Ophthalmology
- Otolaryngology
- Infectious Diseases

Exam Objectives:
The PANRE exam aims to assess the knowledge and skills of certified physician assistants in various medical disciplines and their ability to apply this knowledge in clinical practice. The key objectives of the exam include:

1. Evaluating clinical reasoning skills: Assessing the candidate's ability to analyze patient cases, interpret clinical data, and make appropriate diagnoses and treatment decisions.

2. Assessing medical knowledge: Testing the candidate's understanding of fundamental medical concepts, disease processes, diagnostic techniques, and treatment modalities across different medical specialties.

3. Ensuring currency in medical practice: Validating that the candidate's medical knowledge is up to date and aligned with current best practices, guidelines, and evidence-based medicine.

Exam Syllabus:
The PANRE exam syllabus covers a wide range of medical syllabus and skills essential for the practice of physician assistants. The syllabus includes, but is not limited to, the following areas:

- Anatomy and Physiology
- Pathophysiology
- Pharmacology
- Diagnostic Techniques
- Clinical Decision-Making
- Patient Assessment
- Medical Procedures and Interventions
- Disease Management
- Professional and Legal Issues in Healthcare

Candidates should refer to official NCCPA resources or consult with professional organizations for accurate and up-to-date information on the exam, including registration, preparation, and study materials.

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Medical Assistant exam Questions


Study finds AI language model failed to produce appropriate questions, answers for medical school exam

With concerns mounting that artificial intelligence (AI) could have a profound impact on traditional teaching in academic settings, many question the role of ChatGPT, a sophisticated AI language model that can generate content that mimics human conversation.

ChatGPT offers the potential to assist or take over the student writing process with the capability of authoring everything from college admissions essays to term papers. But, can it also be used to aid the prodigious, sometimes daunting learning process in the medical school curriculum?

Researchers from Boston University Chobanian & Avedisian School of Medicine used ChatGPT to create multiple-choice questions, along with explanations of correct and incorrect choices, for a graduate and medical school immunology class that was taught by faculty in the school's department of pathology & laboratory medicine. They found the AI language model wrote acceptable questions but failed to produce appropriate answers.

The study is published in the journal Academic Pathology.

"Unfortunately, ChatGPT only generated correct mock test with explanations in 32% of the questions (19 out of 60 individual questions). In many instances, ChatGPT failed to provide an explanation for the incorrect answers. An additional 25% of the questions had answers that were either wrong or misleading," explained corresponding author Daniel Remick, MD, professor of pathology & laboratory medicine at the school

According to the researchers, students appreciate practice exams that can be used to study for their real exams. These practice exams have even greater utility when explanations for answers are included since students will learn the rationale for the correct answer and have explanations for the incorrect answers.

Since ChatGPT generated questions with vague or confusing question stems and poor explanations of the answer choices, this study tool may not be entirely viable.

"These types of misleading questions may create further confusion about the topics, especially since the students have not gained expertise and they may not be able to find errors in the questions. "However, despite the issues they encountered, instructors may still find ChatGPT useful for creating practice exams with explanations—with the caveat that extensive editing may be required," added Remick.

More information: Alexander Ngo et al, ChatGPT 3.5 fails to write appropriate multiple choice practice exam questions, Academic Pathology (2023). DOI: 10.1016/j.acpath.2023.100099

Citation: Study finds AI language model failed to produce appropriate questions, answers for medical school exam (2023, December 20) retrieved 6 January 2024 from https://medicalxpress.com/news/2023-12-ai-language-medical-school-exam.html

This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.

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Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

Höhere Gewalt

Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

Technisches Versagen

Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

Kriminelle Ursachen


Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

Physischer Angriff

Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.


Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:


  • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
  • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
  • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
  • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

  • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
  • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
  • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
  • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
  • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
  • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
  • Rechtsverteidigungskosten


  • Betriebsunterbrechung
  • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
  • Mehrkosten
  • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
  • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
  • Cyber-Erpressung
  • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
  • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
  • Cyber-Betrug