Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

Wo erhalte ich vollständige Informationen über PCAT?

Nachfolgend finden Sie alle Details zu Übungstests, Dumps und aktuellen Fragen der PCAT: Pharmacy College Admission Test Prüfung.

2023 Updated Actual PCAT questions as experienced in Test Center

Aktuelle PCAT Fragen aus echten Tests von Killexams.com - easy finanz | easyfinanz

PCAT Dumps - Pharmacy College Admission Test | https://www.easyfinanz.cc/

PsychCorp PCAT : Pharmacy College Admission Test ACTUAL EXAM QUESTIONS

Exam Dumps Organized by Shahid nazir

Latest 2023 Updated PsychCorp Pharmacy College Admission Test Syllabus
PCAT ACTUAL EXAM QUESTIONS / Braindumps contains genuine test Questions

Practice Tests and Free VCE Software - Questions Updated on Daily Basis
Big Discount / Cheapest price & 100% Pass Guarantee

PCAT Exam Center Questions : Download 100% Free PCAT ACTUAL EXAM QUESTIONS (PDF and VCE)

Exam Number : PCAT
Exam Name : Pharmacy College Admission Test
Vendor Name : PsychCorp
Update : Click Here to Check Latest Update
Question Bank : Check Questions

Simply study and remember these PCAT Exam dumps questions
Killexams.com is a helpful resource for individuals who aim to achieve Good Score in their exams and advance their careers. By registering and downloading their materials, you can ensure that you pass your Pharmacy College Admission Test test with flying colors. Their Actual Questions are regularly updated, and you can access them through your account at any time.

At killexams.com, they provide the most accurate and valid 2023 updated dumps for PCAT test that are essential to pass the test and advance your career as a professional in your organization. Their clients who trust their Question Bank and VCE for their real PCAT test have always ranked us at the top. Their focus is not only on passing PCAT with the Braindumps but also on improving your knowledge about PCAT objectives and topics.

We have a team of experts working to create real PCAT questions and keep their PCAT dumps valid and up-to-date at all times. By registering at killexams.com with special discount coupons, you can download 2023 updated real PCAT questions to pass the test and secure a high paying job. You will also get access to Pharmacy College Admission Test questions for PCAT exam, and you can download updated PCAT questions every time with a 100% refund guarantee.

Do not fall for the free dumps provided on the internet, as there are many providers of outdated PCAT dumps. They assure you that if you read and practice their PCAT dumps, you will feel a great improvement in your knowledge and pass PCAT at your first attempt. Their clients trust their PCAT dumps because they can apply their knowledge in real situations in companies as experts.

PCAT test Format | PCAT Course Contents | PCAT Course Outline | PCAT test Syllabus | PCAT test Objectives

The Pharmacy College Admission Test (PCAT®) is a specialized test that helps identify qualified applicants to pharmacy colleges. It measures general academic ability and scientific knowledge necessary for the commencement of pharmaceutical education. The PCAT is constructed specifically for colleges of pharmacy.

B1. General Biology B2. Microbiology

A. Cellular and Molecular Biology

1. Structure and functions of cells

2. Gene expression

3. Cell division and growth

4. Energy transformations

5. Metabolism

A. Microorganisms

B. Infectious Diseases & Prevention

C. Microbial Ecology

D. Medical Microbiology

E. Immunity

B3. Human Anatomy and Physiology

B. Diversity of Life Forms

1. Genetics

A. Structure

1. Cells

2. Tissues

3. Organs

C. Health

1. Nutrition

2. Diseases

3. Drugs

B. Systems

1. Skeletal/muscular/nervous

2. Circulatory/respiratory

3. Excretory/digestive

4. Endocrine/reproductive

5. Integumentary/immune

Biological Processes items may be presented either standing alone (Biological Processes Examples 1–4) or associated with a short passage (Biological Processes Examples 5–8).
Stand-alone items can be answered independent of any passage or other item, while items
associated with a passage will require understanding part or all of the passage in order to
answer them correctly.
• Each Biological Processes item stem will be either in the form of a question (followed
by a question mark) or in the form of an incomplete sentence that requires completion
(with no end punctuation).

• Answer options may contain more than one concept or piece of information but each
one will plausibly relate to the stem.

A. leukocyte.

[A leukocyte is a white blood cell and not the target of an infection from a foreign molecule.]
B. eosinophil.

[Eosinophil is a type of white blood cell that is involved in the immune response to parasitic
infections or allergic reactions and not the target of infection from a foreign molecule.]
C. immunoglobulin.

[Immunoglobulins are antibodies formed by B cells and not the targets of an infection from a
foreign molecule.]
D. antigen. *
[CA: Antigen is the correct term for anything that is the target of the immune response,
causing production of antibodies by the living organism. Antigens can include foreign pollen,
bacteria, viruses, proteins, and some other materials.]

A. Respiratory alkalosis

[Respiratory alkalosis is due to alveolar hyperventilation leading to decreased plasma carbon
dioxide concentration. It develops when the lungs remove more carbon dioxide than is
produced in the tissues. It is a common finding in patients receiving medical ventilation, but it
is not associated with emphysema, which results in a decreased expulsion of carbon dioxide.]

B. Metabolic alkalosis

[This condition results from an altered metabolism. A decreased hydrogen ion concentration
results in increased bicarbonate and carbon dioxide concentrations. It occurs most commonly
when a person has been vomiting profusely. It is not associated with emphysema, which results
in a decreased expulsion of carbon dioxide.]

C. Respiratory acidosis *

[CA: Respiratory acidosis is a clinical disturbance that is due to alveolar hypoventilation.
It results in low blood pH due to decreased clearance of carbon dioxide by the lungs.
This condition occurs in emphysema as exhalation becomes insufficient.]

D. Metabolic acidosis

[Metabolic acidosis is a condition in which the blood pH is low due to increased production of
hydrogen ions by the body or the inability of the body to form bicarbonate in the kidney. It is
not associated with emphysema, which results in a decreased expulsion of carbon dioxide.]

A. Maternal meiotic division I *

[CA: Nondisjunction is an error that can occur during meiosis or mitosis, causing the daughter
cells to have too many or too few chromosomes. Because the child has two maternal alleles
that are not identical and one paternal allele, nondisjunction occurred at this stage of division.]
B. Paternal meiotic division I

[If nondisjunction occurred here, the child would have two paternal alleles and one maternal

C. Maternal meiotic division II

[If nondisjunction had occurred here, the maternal contribution would have been either no
allele or two of the same kind.]

D. Paternal meiotic division II

[If nondisjunction had occurred here, the paternal contribution would have been either no
allele or two of the same kind. Because there is only one of paternal origin, disjunction did
not occur at this stage of division.]

Killexams Review | Reputation | Testimonials | Feedback

PCAT practice questions are great to read and pass exam.
I owe my perfect score on the PCAT test to Killexams. Two weeks into my practice with their test simulator, I felt confident in answering any question that could come my way. The preparation pack turned out to be very relevant and useful, and I cannot thank Killexams enough for making it happen for me.

What is required to pass PCAT exam?
I want to share my experience with killexams.com, which helped me perform exceptionally well in my PCAT exam, surpassing all expectations. In my opinion, killexams.com is one of the most outstanding online coaching ventures that deserves recognition.

Best to pay attention that genuine test questions of PCAT test are available.
Killexams.com is a great company that has helped me more than once. I passed the PCAT test last fall, and over 90% of the questions were honestly valid at that time. They are likely still valid today since killexams.com updates their material regularly. I am hoping for a discount on my next bundle with them as a loyal customer.

I were given updated dumps latest PCAT exam.
killexams.com's dumps collection is easy and stable, and you can pass the test with their materials. I have passed the PCAT test on my first try with killexams.com and am very confident in using it for my other tests as well.

It is best to read PCAT test with real test questions.
Thanks to killexams.com, I passed the PCAT test with a 99% score. Even though I had studied all the chapters, the Braindumps provided sufficient training, and my doubts were cleared in no time. I plan to use their services again in the future and highly recommend them to anyone taking the PCAT exam.

PsychCorp Test test Questions


Test your knowledge with these trial HSC test questions

Newscorp Australia are trialling new security software on their mastheads. If you receive "Potential automated action detected!" please try these steps first:
  • Temporarily disable any AdBlockers / pop-up blockers / script blockers you have enabled
  • Add this site in to the allowed list for any AdBlockers / pop-up blockers / script blockers you have enabled
  • Ensure your browser supports JavaScript (this can be done via accessing https://www.whatismybrowser.com/detect/is-javascript-enabled in your browser)
  • Ensure you are using the latest version of your web browser
  • If you need to be unblocked please e-mail us at accessissues@news.com.au and provide the IP address and reference number shown here along with why you require access. News Corp Australia.

    Your IP address is: | Your reference number is: 0.8f386368.1692842638.922beb25

    Teas Practice Test-The best Website That Offers Accurate And Exact Teas test Answers

    No result found, try new keyword!Using the teas VCE test with questions similar to the genuine test can significantly boost your teas preparation. Naxlex provides teas practice questions that are 100% accurate, like the real ...

    Preparing for TOEFL iBT Test? Top official answers questions around shortened exam, preparation and much more

    Educational Testing Service (ETS) will introduce a shortened TOFEL iBT test from Wednesday July 26, 2023. The shortened version of the test will take less than two hours to complete instead of three. While announcing about this decision, ETS had said that the process of creating an account and registration for TOEFL iBT will also become quicker and easier.

    A good TOEFL score for top colleges in the US, UK, and Canada is one that exceeds minimum requirements and aligns with the expectations of each institution. (HT file) A good TOEFL score for top colleges in the US, UK, and Canada is one that exceeds minimum requirements and aligns with the expectations of each institution. (HT file)

    In a bid to provide a better insight to test takers on the accurate changes made to the TOEFL test and answer some of the general questions they have regarding the test and its preparation, HT Education posed some questions to Sachin Jain, Country Manager, ETS India and South Asia.

    Q: What are the changes made to the TOEFL test and how do these impact the test takers?

    A: The TOEFL iBT has been streamlined and now takes less than two hours, a significant reduction from the previous three-hour duration. This makes TOEFL iBT the shortest test among the three most popular English-language testing options. All unscored test questions have been removed, and the 'Writing for an Academic Discussion' now replaces the previous “Independent Writing task.” In addition, test takers will experience a shortened practicing section as well as streamlined instructions and navigation.

    Candidates can review responses at the end in a couple of sections, with an opportunity to go back to the previously attempted questions. Test takers will continue to receive instant scores for practicing and Listening sections, and will now also be notified of the official score reporting date immediately upon test completion. The final score report will be released in about 4-8 days.

    In order to support students better, test payments can now be made in INR. In addition, students also have the convenience of an India-based Toll-Free support number, ensuring they have dedicated assistance readily available, from 8am to 8pm (IST), 7 days a week. They are also offering a limited period discount of INR 1500 on TOEFL iBT. These changes endeavour to make the test more manageable, less exhausting and help candidates demonstrate their English proficiency in a more effective manner.

    Q: How does the accurate approval of the TOEFL iBT test by Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada (IRCC) for use in Canada's Student Direct Stream (SDS), benefit students?

    A: The acceptance of the TOEFL iBT test in Canada's SDS program brings significant advantages for students. Previously, there was only one authorized English-language testing option for the SDS route. Now, students have the opportunity to choose the test that suits them best. TOEFL iBT is the world's most widely accepted English-language test and recognized by over 12,000 institutions across 160 countries worldwide, with 100% acceptance from Canadian universities. The inclusion of TOEFL iBT in the SDS program is particularly beneficial for international students from India. Based on industry insights, SDS route is extremely popular with Indian students and they accounted for more than 96% of all SDS applications since 2019. The approval rate for Indian SDS applicants in 2022 was three times higher, at 62%, compared to their counterparts applying through the regular mechanism.

    Q: How soon should one begin to prepare for English proficiency tests in advance of pursing their study abroad journey?

    A: The ideal preparation timeframe for TOEFL iBT varies based on a variety of factors, including an individual's language proficiency skill. While a general recommendation is to allocate 4 to 8 weeks for preparation, several factors should be taken into account to determine the optimal starting time. Test-takers should first assess their current level of English proficiency and establish a target score aligned with the requirements of their desired university.

    In addition to that, personal factors such as learning pace, existing commitments and daily schedule should be considered to determine the amount of time that can be dedicated to TOEFL iBT preparation. It is highly advisable for candidates to familiarise themselves with the TOEFL iBT format by practicing with resources and mock tests available on the official website. This practice material enables them to identify areas of improvement, allowing them to allocate sufficient time for practice and to strengthen these skills.

    Q: What are some of the learning resources, including official learning resources, that test takers can use to prepare TOEFL?

    A: For TOEFL preparation, numerous official, free resources are offered by ETS. ETS's 'TOEFL Test Preparation: The Insider's Guide' is a comprehensive 6-week course featuring instructional videos, quizzes, discussion boards and expert tips. The TOEFL iBT Free VCE test contains authentic past test questions, trial responses, and complimentary practice sets.

    Additional paid resources include the Official TOEFL iBT Prep Course, this self-paced course helps to build the skills you need to communicate in English in an academic environment. With the 6-month subscription, test takers will be able to do in-depth lessons and activities across the 4 skills — Reading, Listening, Speaking and Writing, take pre- and post-tests to help evaluate performance, receive score ranges for the Speaking and Writing post-tests, using the same automated scoring as in the genuine TOEFL iBT test.

    TOEFL Practice Online helps to review and answer authentic test questions, test takers receive scores within 24 hours, with performance feedback on all 4 skills measured on the test. Official Guide to the TOEFL Test is available in eBook and paperback format, and includes four full-length practice tests, valuable tips and hundreds of trial questions for all four test sections. Utilising these resources can increase students' chances of success on the TOEFL iBT test.

    Q: What is a good score to apply to top colleges in the US, U.K. and Canada?

    A: A good TOEFL score for top colleges in the US, U.K. and Canada is one that exceeds the minimum requirements set by each institution. Highly competitive universities expect strong English proficiency, so aiming for a score above the average or towards the higher end of the institution's requirements can strengthen your application. It's important to remember that scores are just one part of the application, and admissions committees consider various factors such as previous academic record, extracurriculars, personal statements and recommendation letters.

    To determine an ideal TOEFL score, one must research the requirements of each institution and aim for a score hat aligns with their expectations. Students should reach out to admissions offices or visit official websites for more detailed information. By understanding score requirements in advance and achieving a competitive TOEFL score through planned preparation, one can not only Improve their chances of getting into their dream colleges but also stand to win partial or full fee waivers or scholarships from such colleges.

    Q: What are some of the language and personality attributes that leading foreign universities look for in students?

    A: When it comes to language attributes, one should be able to articulate their ideas, both in written and spoken forms. Alongside this, embracing diverse cultures, exhibiting team work, collaboration and leadership potential as well as possessing critical thinking abilities are some of the qualities that institutions look for in students.


    Nilesh Mathur is online news editor with Hindustan Times. He has worked on the online news desk for the last 21 years. Presently, he covers education and career related news. ...view detail


    Whilst it is very hard task to choose reliable test Braindumps resources regarding review, reputation and validity because people get ripoff due to choosing incorrect service. Killexams make it sure to provide its clients far better to their resources with respect to ACTUAL EXAM QUESTIONS update and validity. Most of other peoples ripoff report complaint clients come to us for the brain dumps and pass their exams enjoyably and easily. They never compromise on their review, reputation and quality because killexams review, killexams reputation and killexams client self confidence is important to all of us. Specially they manage killexams.com review, killexams.com reputation, killexams.com ripoff report complaint, killexams.com trust, killexams.com validity, killexams.com report and killexams scam. If perhaps you see any bogus report posted by their competitor with the name killexams ripoff report complaint internet, killexams.com ripoff report, killexams.com scam, killexams.com complaint or something like this, just keep in mind that there are always bad people damaging reputation of good services due to their benefits. There are a large number of satisfied customers that pass their exams using killexams.com brain dumps, killexams PDF questions, killexams practice questions, killexams test simulator. Visit their test questions and trial brain dumps, their test simulator and you will definitely know that killexams.com is the best brain dumps site.

    Which is the best dumps website?
    Without a doubt, Killexams is fully legit in addition to fully trusted. There are several capabilities that makes killexams.com legitimate and respectable. It provides up to par and fully valid ACTUAL EXAM QUESTIONS filled with real exams questions and answers. Price is extremely low as compared to most of the services online. The Braindumps are up-to-date on common basis along with most accurate brain dumps. Killexams account structure and solution delivery is really fast. Report downloading is unlimited and incredibly fast. Service is avaiable via Livechat and E-mail. These are the characteristics that makes killexams.com a strong website that provide ACTUAL EXAM QUESTIONS with real exams questions.

    Is killexams.com test material dependable?
    There are several Braindumps provider in the market claiming that they provide genuine test Questions, Braindumps, Practice Tests, Study Guides, cheat sheet and many other names, but most of them are re-sellers that do not update their contents frequently. Killexams.com is best website of Year 2023 that understands the issue candidates face when they spend their time studying obsolete contents taken from free pdf download sites or reseller sites. Thats why killexams.com update test Braindumps with the same frequency as they are updated in Real Test. ACTUAL EXAM QUESTIONS provided by killexams.com are Reliable, Up-to-date and validated by Certified Professionals. They maintain dumps collection of valid Questions that is kept up-to-date by checking update on daily basis.

    If you want to Pass your test Fast with improvement in your knowledge about latest course contents and courses of new syllabus, They recommend to download PDF test Questions from killexams.com and get ready for genuine exam. When you feel that you should register for Premium Version, Just choose visit killexams.com and register, you will receive your Username/Password in your Email within 5 to 10 minutes. All the future updates and changes in Braindumps will be provided in your download Account. You can download Premium ACTUAL EXAM QUESTIONS files as many times as you want, There is no limit.

    Killexams.com has provided VCE VCE test Software to Practice your test by Taking Test Frequently. It asks the Real test Questions and Marks Your Progress. You can take test as many times as you want. There is no limit. It will make your test prep very fast and effective. When you start getting 100% Marks with complete Pool of Questions, you will be ready to take genuine Test. Go register for Test in Exam Center and Enjoy your Success.

    OG0-081 PDF Questions | ServiceNow-CSA free practice exams | MBLEX practice test | 4H0-712 Free PDF | 2B0-018 test prep | T1-GR1 PDF Dumps | CFE training material | CDL free online test | JN0-212 test prep | RTRP practice questions | HPE0-S58 genuine Questions | ISSEP test example | MOPF cbt | EX200 free test papers | SPLK-3001 question test | MHAP Study Guide | E20-065 Braindumps | CCNT PDF download | LCDC test Cram | ABPN-VNE Braindumps |

    PCAT - Pharmacy College Admission Test teaching
    PCAT - Pharmacy College Admission Test book
    PCAT - Pharmacy College Admission Test Test Prep
    PCAT - Pharmacy College Admission Test exam
    PCAT - Pharmacy College Admission Test Test Prep
    PCAT - Pharmacy College Admission Test Questions and Answers
    PCAT - Pharmacy College Admission Test boot camp
    PCAT - Pharmacy College Admission Test boot camp
    PCAT - Pharmacy College Admission Test learning
    PCAT - Pharmacy College Admission Test real questions
    PCAT - Pharmacy College Admission Test Study Guide
    PCAT - Pharmacy College Admission Test information source
    PCAT - Pharmacy College Admission Test Study Guide
    PCAT - Pharmacy College Admission Test PDF Braindumps
    PCAT - Pharmacy College Admission Test outline
    PCAT - Pharmacy College Admission Test test Questions
    PCAT - Pharmacy College Admission Test PDF Download
    PCAT - Pharmacy College Admission Test test syllabus
    PCAT - Pharmacy College Admission Test testing
    PCAT - Pharmacy College Admission Test learning
    PCAT - Pharmacy College Admission Test learning
    PCAT - Pharmacy College Admission Test study help
    PCAT - Pharmacy College Admission Test PDF Braindumps
    PCAT - Pharmacy College Admission Test Real test Questions
    PCAT - Pharmacy College Admission Test ACTUAL EXAM QUESTIONS
    PCAT - Pharmacy College Admission ACTUAL EXAM QUESTIONS
    PCAT - Pharmacy College Admission Test genuine Questions
    PCAT - Pharmacy College Admission Test answers
    PCAT - Pharmacy College Admission Test teaching
    PCAT - Pharmacy College Admission Test Question Bank
    PCAT - Pharmacy College Admission Test outline
    PCAT - Pharmacy College Admission Test learning
    PCAT - Pharmacy College Admission Test PDF Download
    PCAT - Pharmacy College Admission Test certification
    PCAT - Pharmacy College Admission Test PDF Dumps
    PCAT - Pharmacy College Admission Test test Questions
    PCAT - Pharmacy College Admission Test certification
    PCAT - Pharmacy College Admission Test book
    PCAT - Pharmacy College Admission Test test Questions
    PCAT - Pharmacy College Admission Test answers
    PCAT - Pharmacy College Admission Test information source
    PCAT - Pharmacy College Admission Test Free test PDF
    PCAT - Pharmacy College Admission Test testing
    PCAT - Pharmacy College Admission Test learning


    PCAT online exam |

    Best ACTUAL EXAM QUESTIONS You Ever Experienced

    PC0-006 writing test questions | TT0-101 practice questions | 300-635 Free PDF | CIMAPRA19-F03-1-ENG test Questions | CSCP braindumps | CPFA examcollection | CRFA real questions | F50-528 free pdf | BEC practice exam | CTAL-TM-UK test exam | C90-06A ACTUAL EXAM QUESTIONS | 4A0-104 Real test Questions | 1D0-61C practice questions | CLSSGB Latest Topics | NAB-NHA real questions | P11-101 test Questions | DANB VCE | CFSW braindumps | DHORT test prep | 701-100 questions answers |

    References :


    Similar Websites :
    Pass4sure Certification ACTUAL EXAM QUESTIONS
    Pass4Sure test Questions and Dumps

    Direct Download

    PCAT Reviews by Customers

    Customer Reviews help to evaluate the exam performance in real test. Here all the reviews, reputation, success stories and ripoff reports provided.

    PCAT Reviews

    100% Valid and Up to Date PCAT Exam Questions

    We hereby announce with the collaboration of world's leader in Certification Exam Dumps and Real Exam Questions with Practice Tests that, we offer Real Exam Questions of thousands of Certification Exams Free PDF with up to date VCE exam simulator Software.

    Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

    Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

    Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

    Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

    Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

    Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

    Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

    Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

    Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

    Höhere Gewalt

    Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

    Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

    Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

    Technisches Versagen

    Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

    Kriminelle Ursachen


    Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

    Physischer Angriff

    Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.


    Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

    Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:


    • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
    • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
    • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
    • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

    Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

    • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
    • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
    • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
    • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
    • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
    • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
    • Rechtsverteidigungskosten


    • Betriebsunterbrechung
    • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
    • Mehrkosten
    • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
    • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
    • Cyber-Erpressung
    • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
    • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
    • Cyber-Betrug