Was ist das eigentlich? Cyberrisiken verständlich erklärt

Es wird viel über Cyberrisiken gesprochen. Oftmals fehlt aber das grundsätzliche Verständnis, was Cyberrisiken überhaupt sind. Ohne diese zu verstehen, lässt sich aber auch kein Versicherungsschutz gestalten.

Beinahe alle Aktivitäten des täglichen Lebens können heute über das Internet abgewickelt werden. Online-Shopping und Online-Banking sind im Alltag angekommen. Diese Entwicklung trifft längst nicht nur auf Privatleute, sondern auch auf Firmen zu. Das Schlagwort Industrie 4.0 verheißt bereits eine zunehmende Vernetzung diverser geschäftlicher Vorgänge über das Internet.

Anbieter von Cyberversicherungen für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen (KMU) haben Versicherungen die Erfahrung gemacht, dass trotz dieser eindeutigen Entwicklung Cyberrisiken immer noch unterschätzt werden, da sie als etwas Abstraktes wahrgenommen werden. Für KMU kann dies ein gefährlicher Trugschluss sein, da gerade hier Cyberattacken existenzbedrohende Ausmaße annehmen können. So wird noch häufig gefragt, was Cyberrisiken eigentlich sind. Diese Frage ist mehr als verständlich, denn ohne (Cyber-)Risiken bestünde auch kein Bedarf für eine (Cyber-)Versicherung.

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Exam Number : PDII
Exam Name : Salesforce Certified Platform Developer II (PDII)
Vendor Name : Salesforce
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PDII exam Format | PDII Course Contents | PDII Course Outline | PDII exam Syllabus | PDII exam Objectives


The Salesforce Certified Platform Developer II program is designed for individuals who would
like to demonstrate their skills and knowledge in advanced programmatic capabilities of the
Lightning Platform and data modeling to develop complex business logic and interfaces. The
candidate can design, develop, test, and deploy programmatic solutions that are
maintainable and re-usable and follow design patterns and object-oriented programming
best practices.

The Salesforce Platform Developer I credential is a prerequisite for the program.
The Salesforce Certified Platform Developer II (PDII) certification will
consist of two parts: a proctored multiple-choice exam and four Trailhead Superbadges
which replace the Programming Assignment. Similar to the Programming Assignment,
superbadges show that you can apply what you've learned to advanced, real-world business
requirements covering features, concepts, and scenarios that are essential for a Platform
Developer II to know, including Apex programming, data integration and more.



This exam guide is designed to help you evaluate if you are ready to successfully complete
the Salesforce Certified Platform Developer II program. This guide provides information
about the target audience for the certification program, recommended training and
documentation, and a complete list of exam objectives—all with the intent of helping you
achieve a passing score. Salesforce highly recommends a combination of on-the-job
experience, course attendance, and self-study to maximize your chances of passing the
exam.


The Salesforce Certified Platform Developer II Multiple Choice exam measures a candidates
knowledge and skills related to the following objectives. A candidate should have hands-on
experience developing custom applications on the Lightning Platform and have
demonstrated the application of each of the features/functions below.

SALESFORCE FUNDAMENTALS

 Describe the capabilities of base-system objects such as sharing objects,
history objects, metadata objects, multi-currency, and Chatter objects.

 Describe the different capabilities of and use cases for the various
Salesforce development platforms (Heroku, Fuel, Lightning Platform).

DATA MODELING AND MANAGEMENT

 Describe how to design code that accommodates multi-language, multicurrency, multi-locale considerations.

 Describe the implications of compound data types in Apex
programming.

 Describe the use cases for and benefits of external IDs.

 Identify use cases for different types of custom metadata and custom
settings, and describe how to implement solutions for those use cases.

LOGIC AND PROCESS AUTOMATION

 Given a scenario, describe the implications of the order of execution of a
record save.

 Describe the interactions between Visualforce/Apex with Flow/Process
Builder.

 Given a scenario, identify the optimal programmatic or declarative
solution.

 Given a scenario, debug unexpected behavior due to save execution
order.

 Describe the Apex features available for error handling and maintaining
transactional integrity.

 Identify potential issues with inefficient code and mitigation techniques
to avoid exceeding governor limits.

 Describe the data return types for SOQL and SOSL queries and their
impact on variable assignment.

 Describe the options, best practices, and use cases for asynchronous
execution.

Weighting 33%

Weighting 5%

Weighting 7%

SALESFORCE CERTIFIED PLATFORM DEVELOPER I I

 Given a scenario, identify the appropriate dynamic Apex feature.

 Given a scenario, describe when and how to use Apex managed sharing.

 Describe the use cases for the various authentication techniques.

USER INTERFACE

 Given a scenario, describe how to use a standard set controller.

 Describe the considerations when creating custom controllers and
controller extensions.

 Describe the techniques for using Visualforce to perform actions and
partial page refresh.

 Describe the messaging techniques and best practices when displaying
errors in user interfaces.

 Describe techniques to maximize code re-use with Visualforce.

 Describe use cases for JavaScript in a Visualforce page.

 Given a set of requirements, describe the process for designing Lightning
components.

PERFORMANCE

 Describe the common performance issues for user interfaces and the
techniques to mitigate them.

 Describe the considerations for query performance.
INTEGRATION

 Describe how to expose Apex classes as SOAP and REST web services.

 Describe how to use system classes to integrate with SOAP- or RESTbased web services.

 Describe when and how to use metadata, streaming, and Analytics API
to enhance Apex and Visualforce solutions.

TESTING

 Describe the best practices for unit testing in Apex.

 Describe how to apply different techniques to create test data and
responses.

 Describe the implications of testing Visualforce controllers and controller
extensions.

 Describe various ways to execute tests and specify test execution
options.

Weighting 20%

Weighting 12%

Weighting 11%

Weighting 7%

SALESFORCE CERTIFIED PLATFORM DEVELOPER II DEBUG AND DEPLOYMENT TOOLS

 Given a scenario, identify the appropriate tool to analyze application
performance profiles and troubleshoot data and performance issues.

 Given a scenario, identify the appropriate deployment tool.



SECTION 2. AUDIENCE DESCRIPTION: SALESFORCE CERTIFIED PLATFORM DEVELOPER II

The Salesforce Certified Platform Developer II program is intended for an individual who has
experience developing custom applications on the Lightning Platform, including practical
application of the skills and concepts noted in the exam objectives below.

The Salesforce Certified Platform Developer II generally has two to four years of experience
as a developer, including at least one year of design, implementation, and deployment
experience on the Lightning Platform.

The Salesforce Certified Platform Developer II candidate has the experience, skills, and
knowledge outlined below:

 Understands the principles and best practices of Salesforce data modeling, interface
design, code development, and testing, and can apply these principles in real-world
development environments.

 Is capable of defining appropriate solutions to meet specific business
challenges/process requirements to extend/customize the platform by applying
knowledge of declarative and programmatic features of the Lightning Platform.

 Is competent developing Apex code that will scale to large data sets; has a good
understanding of platform behaviors, limits, and performance considerations.

 Can build custom user interfaces to display and interact with Salesforce data using
the Lightning Component Framework, advanced Visualforce, CSS, and JavaScript.

 Is competent tuning Visualforce pages and understands performance implications of
the controller design.

 Understands and applies best practices for general web and Salesforce-specific
security concerns.

 Can design and implement complex sharing models using declarative and
programmatic methods.

 Can design and implement a test plan that ensures adequate quality (e.g., code
coverage, application behaviors, scalability, environment independence, security)
across application components.

 Can deploy custom applications, has a broad understanding of the Salesforce
development lifecycle, and understands deployment tools and knows when to apply
each tool.

 Understands and uses Apex SOAP and REST web services and how to call out from
Apex using SOAP and REST.

 Understands and uses asynchronous programming – queueable, batchable,
schedulable, @future, etc.

 Understands and applies appropriate techniques for error and exception handling in
various programmatic contexts.

Implements best practices for trigger development and design patterns, other
business logic development, and reuse.

 Knows how to surface Lightning Components on a Lightning page and with Quick
Actions.

A candidate for this exam is not expected to:

 Administer any standard Salesforce application.

 Design a technical architecture solution that spans multiple platforms and includes
integration and authentication across systems.

 Develop and publish managed products on the App Exchange that require a security
review.

 Create a Quick Action.

 Surface Lightning Components in all possible locations.

 Use all Salesforce APIs (i.e. metadata).



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Warum sind Cyberrisiken so schwer greifbar?

Als mehr oder weniger neuartiges Phänomen stellen Cyberrisiken Unternehmen und Versicherer vor besondere Herausforderungen. Nicht nur die neuen Schadenszenarien sind abstrakter oder noch nicht bekannt. Häufig sind immaterielle Werte durch Cyberrisiken in Gefahr. Diese wertvollen Vermögensgegenstände sind schwer bewertbar.

Obwohl die Gefahr durchaus wahrgenommen wird, unterschätzen viele Firmen ihr eigenes Risiko. Dies liegt unter anderem auch an den Veröffentlichungen zu Cyberrisiken. In der Presse finden sich unzählige Berichte von Cyberattacken auf namhafte und große Unternehmen. Den Weg in die Presse finden eben nur die spektakulären Fälle. Die dort genannten Schadenszenarien werden dann für das eigene Unternehmen als unrealistisch eingestuft. Die für die KMU nicht minder gefährlichen Cyber­attacken werden nur selten publiziert.

Aufgrund der fehlenden öffentlichen Meldungen von Sicherheitsvorfällen an Sicherheitsbehörden und wegen der fehlenden Presseberichte fällt es schwer, Fakten und Zahlen zur Risikolage zu erheben. Aber ohne diese Grundlage fällt es schwer, in entsprechende Sicherheitsmaßnahmen zu investieren.

Erklärungsleitfaden anhand eines Ursache-Wirkungs-Modells

Häufig nähert man sich dem Thema Cyberrisiko anlass- oder eventbezogen, also wenn sich neue Schaden­szenarien wie die weltweite WannaCry-Attacke entwickeln. Häufig wird auch akteursgebunden beleuchtet, wer Angreifer oder Opfer sein kann. Dadurch begrenzt man sich bei dem Thema häufig zu sehr nur auf die Cyberkriminalität. Um dem Thema Cyberrisiko jedoch gerecht zu werden, müssen auch weitere Ursachen hinzugezogen werden.

Mit einer Kategorisierung kann das Thema ganzheitlich und nachvollziehbar strukturiert werden. Ebenso hilft eine solche Kategorisierung dabei, eine Abgrenzung vorzunehmen, für welche Gefahren Versicherungsschutz über eine etwaige Cyberversicherung besteht und für welche nicht.

Die Ursachen sind dabei die Risiken, während finanzielle bzw. nicht finanzielle Verluste die Wirkungen sind. Cyberrisiken werden demnach in zwei Hauptursachen eingeteilt. Auf der einen Seite sind die nicht kriminellen Ursachen und auf der anderen Seite die kriminellen Ursachen zu nennen. Beide Ursachen können dabei in drei Untergruppen unterteilt werden.

Nicht kriminelle Ursachen

Höhere Gewalt

Häufig hat man bei dem Thema Cyberrisiko nur die kriminellen Ursachen vor Augen. Aber auch höhere Gewalt kann zu einem empfindlichen Datenverlust führen oder zumindest die Verfügbarkeit von Daten einschränken, indem Rechenzentren durch Naturkatastrophen wie beispielsweise Überschwemmungen oder Erdbeben zerstört werden. Ebenso sind Stromausfälle denkbar.

Menschliches Versagen/Fehlverhalten

Als Cyberrisiken sind auch unbeabsichtigtes und menschliches Fehlverhalten denkbar. Hierunter könnte das versehentliche Veröffentlichen von sensiblen Informationen fallen. Möglich sind eine falsche Adressierung, Wahl einer falschen Faxnummer oder das Hochladen sensibler Daten auf einen öffentlichen Bereich der Homepage.

Technisches Versagen

Auch Hardwaredefekte können zu einem herben Datenverlust führen. Neben einem Überhitzen von Rechnern sind Kurzschlüsse in Systemtechnik oder sogenannte Headcrashes von Festplatten denkbare Szenarien.

Kriminelle Ursachen

Hackerangriffe

Hackerangriffe oder Cyberattacken sind in der Regel die Szenarien, die die Presse dominieren. Häufig wird von spektakulären Datendiebstählen auf große Firmen oder von weltweiten Angriffen mit sogenannten Kryptotrojanern berichtet. Opfer kann am Ende aber jeder werden. Ziele, Methoden und auch das Interesse sind vielfältig. Neben dem finanziellen Interesse können Hackerangriffe auch zur Spionage oder Sabotage eingesetzt werden. Mögliche Hackermethoden sind unter anderem: Social Engineering, Trojaner, DoS-Attacken oder Viren.

Physischer Angriff

Die Zielsetzung eines physischen Angriffs ist ähnlich dem eines Hacker­angriffs. Dabei wird nicht auf die Tools eines Hackerangriffs zurückgegriffen, sondern durch das physische Eindringen in Unternehmensgebäude das Ziel erreicht. Häufig sind es Mitarbeiter, die vertrauliche Informationen stehlen, da sie bereits den notwendigen Zugang zu den Daten besitzen.

Erpressung

Obwohl die Erpressung aufgrund der eingesetzten Methoden auch als Hacker­angriff gewertet werden könnte, ergibt eine Differenzierung Sinn. Erpressungsfälle durch Kryptotrojaner sind eines der häufigsten Schadenszenarien für kleinere und mittelständische Unternehmen. Außerdem sind auch Erpressungsfälle denkbar, bei denen sensible Daten gestohlen wurden und ein Lösegeld gefordert wird, damit sie nicht veröffentlicht oder weiterverkauft werden.

Ihre Cyberversicherung sollte zumindet folgende Schäden abdecken:

Cyber-Kosten:

  • Soforthilfe und Forensik-Kosten (Kosten der Ursachenermittlung, Benachrichtigungskosten und Callcenter-Leistung)
  • Krisenkommunikation / PR-Maßnahmen
  • Systemverbesserungen nach einer Cyber-Attacke
  • Aufwendungen vor Eintritt des Versicherungsfalls

Cyber-Drittschäden (Haftpflicht):

  • Befriedigung oder Abwehr von Ansprüchen Dritter
  • Rechtswidrige elektronische Kommunikation
  • Ansprüche der E-Payment-Serviceprovider
  • Vertragsstrafe wegen der Verletzung von Geheimhaltungspflichten und Datenschutzvereinbarungen
  • Vertragliche Schadenersatzansprüche
  • Vertragliche Haftpflicht bei Datenverarbeitung durch Dritte
  • Rechtsverteidigungskosten

Cyber-Eigenschäden:

  • Betriebsunterbrechung
  • Betriebsunterbrechung durch Ausfall von Dienstleister (optional)
  • Mehrkosten
  • Wiederherstellung von Daten (auch Entfernen der Schadsoftware)
  • Cyber-Diebstahl: elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr, fehlerhafter Versand von Waren, Telefon-Mehrkosten/erhöhte Nutzungsentgelte
  • Cyber-Erpressung
  • Entschädigung mit Strafcharakter/Bußgeld
  • Ersatz-IT-Hardware
  • Cyber-Betrug